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Researching and Measuring Entertainment Audiences. Chapter 7. Why We Conduct Research. Finding out and describing - tracks a changing audience landscape Explaining - answer “why” questions for predicting future trends Evaluating - judging success or failure. Branches of Empirical Research.

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Researching and Measuring Entertainment Audiences

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    1. Researching and Measuring Entertainment Audiences Chapter 7

    2. Why We Conduct Research • Finding out and describing - tracks a changing audience landscape • Explaining - answer “why” questions for predicting future trends • Evaluating - judging success or failure

    3. Branches of Empirical Research Theoretical data research - draws general conclusions about a phenomenon through deductive hypothesis testing Applied data research - inductive, interpretive model that explores and discovers audience-related issues

    4. Descriptive Studies • Observation and field-based • Unstructured data collection • Ethnographic approach • Culture-orientation • Emic perspective

    5. Consumer Ethnography

    6. Critical Incident and Trailer Call Techniques • Critical incident (CIT) identifies “best practices” and audience requirements on a periodic basis. Focus is on an incident, what led up to it, and how it helped compete an interaction. • Trailer calls obtain immediate feedback on performance of a transaction on a continuous basis using a short list of questions.

    7. Projective Techniques Information emerges from research types: • Constitutive • Constructive • Interpretive • Cathartic • Refractive

    8. Rorschach Test

    9. Good wife 1 1/2 lb. hamburger 2 loaves Wonder bread Bunch carrots Maxwell House coffee (drip ground) 2 cans Del Monte peaches 6 lbs. potatoes Lazy Wife 1 1/2 lb. hamburger 2 loaves Wonder bread Bunch carrots Nescafe instant coffee 2 cans Del Monte peaches 6 lbs. potatoes Haire Study

    10. Projective Techniques for Audience Motivation Research • Word associations • Symbolic associations • Thematic apperception test (TAT) • Object sorting

    11. Rich Description Techniques • Free association • Choice ordering • Completion • Construction • Expressive

    12. Free Association • Brand-specific use personification techniques • Photo sorting matches pictures with a brand • Photo and tale collages

    13. Associations for Mall of America Attributes Product-related Attributes User Imagery Brand Personality • Multiple shopping options Fashionable, trendy, Fun, adventuresome, • Ample parking stylish, unisex athletic, artsy MALL OF AMERICA Benefits Functional benefits Experiential benefits Symbolic benefits • Big names, wide range of Greenery, escalators, Feeling of self-prices, product variety kid activities, cafe smells expression and self- assurance

    14. Completion Devices • Sentence completion in first or third person • Use in group interactions and individual interviews • Easily developed and administered

    15. Construction Techniques Story development from specific stimuli • Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique collage development and respondent stories • Cartoon bubble completion

    16. Consumer Collage

    17. Cartoon Bubble

    18. Other Techniques • Role playing - generates consumer narratives from their acting out a situation • Brand obituaries - tales help companies understand the brand and its perceived value

    19. Evaluative Research • Audience analysis by syndicated research companies • Exposure ratings use both gross and cumulative measures such as GRP, CPP, and CPM

    20. Advertising Research • Measures who sees the ad • Determines audience response to ads • Evaluates effect of ad through sales data • Nielsen Media Research tracks product placement ratings • Podcast audience tallies

    21. Q Factor • Celebrities and stars are rated using the Q rating system where audiences grade using a 6-point scale In your opinion the performer is…. • One of my favorites • Very good • Good • Fair • Poor • Someone I’ve never heard or seen.

    22. Analyzing Qualitative Research • Sorting and categorization of interview text is used to identify emerging themes • Top-of-mind preferences are used to answer the question “why” • Projective techniques yield patterns • Triangulation uses multiple methods to authenticate the data collection and analysis

    23. Internet Audience Research • Chat groups • Listservs • Groupware • Threaded discussions • Guestbooks •

    24. Protocols Templates for research guidelines • Focus group questionnaire • Survey components: introduction, completion instructions, questions using scaling techniques, demographic information.

    25. Questions • What is the best method for researching declining attendance at a local performance venue? How would you design data collection and analysis? • What ethical issues are involved in gathering personal information from attendees or participants of events? How can they be overcome?