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Language and Social Skills for Individuals with Autism

Language and Social Skills for Individuals with Autism

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Language and Social Skills for Individuals with Autism

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  1. Language and Social Skills for Individuals with Autism PS 572

  2. DSM-IV-TR • Classification of mental disorders used in the US • Published by the American Psychiatric Association • DSM – IV published in 1994 • Text Revision in 2000 • DSM – V expected in 2010 or later • Lists criteria for a diagnosis • Provides a numerical diagnostic code for each disorder • Most categories include an NOS diagnosis (Not Otherwise Specified)

  3. Multiaxal Classification of the DSM • Axis I – Major mental disorders, developmental and learning disorders • Examples: depression, ADHD, tic disorders, feeding disorders, schizophrenia, dementia, pervasive developmental disorders • Axis II – Personality disorders and mental retardation • Axis III – Medical conditions and injuries • Example: brain injury • Axis IV – Life events or problems • Legal, housing, economic, family, educational, occupational, social • Axis V – Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) • Numerical representation of how the person is functioning overall (0 to 100)

  4. Pervasive Developmental Disorders • Come under section in DSM-IV-TR entitled… • Disorders Usually First Diagnosed in Infancy, Childhood, or Adolescence • Includes • Mental retardation • Learning disorders • Motor skills disorders • Communication disorders • Pervasive developmental disorders • Attention-deficit and disruptive behavior disorders • Feeding and eating disorders of infancy or early childhood • Tic disorders • Elimination disorders • Others: separation anxiety disorder, selective mutism, reactive attachment disorder of infancy or early childhood, stereotypic movement disorder, disorder of infancy, childhood, or adolescence - NOS

  5. DSM Category: PDDs Pervasive Developmental Disorders Childhood Disintegrative Disorder Rett’s Disorder Autistic Disorder PDD- Not Otherwise Specified Asperger’s Disorder • PDDs are characterized by severe and pervasive impairment in 3 main areas • Social interaction • Communication • Repetitive and restricted behaviors

  6. Diagnostic Criteria for Autistic Disorder (299.00) • To receive a diagnosis of autism, a child must have at least 6 of the characteristics in the 3 areas (note minimums in each area) • In one of the areas, onset must be before age 3

  7. DSM Criteria for an Autism Diagnosis: Social Interaction • Must meet 2 of the following: • Marked impairment in multiple nonverbal behaviors (e.g., eye contact, facial expressions) • Failure to develop peer relationships for age • Lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests or achievement with others • Lack of social or emotional reciprocity

  8. DSM Criteria for an Autism Diagnosis: Communication • Must meet 1 of the following: • Delay in, or total lack of, the development of spoken language (not accompanied by an attempt to compensate through alternative modes of communication) • Marked impairment in ability to initiate or sustain conversation with others • Stereotyped and repetitive use of language • Lack of varied, spontaneous make-believe play or social imitative play appropriate to developmental level

  9. DSM Criteria for an Autism Diagnosis: Restricted Repetitive and Stereotyped Patterns of Behavior, Interests, and Activities • Must meet 1 of the following: • Encompassing preoccupation with one or more stereotyped and restricted patterns of interest that’s abnormal in intensity or focus • Inflexible adherence to specific, non-functional routines or rituals • Stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms (e.g., hand flapping, rocking) • Persistent preoccupation with parts of objects

  10. DSM Criteria for PDD-NOS • Severe and pervasive impairment in the development of reciprocal social interaction along with • Communication skills OR • Presence of stereotyped behavior, interests, and activities • But criteria are not met for any other PDD

  11. Rett’s Disorder

  12. Childhood Disintegrative Disorder

  13. Differential Diagnostic Features of PDDS From Volkmar and Klin (2005)

  14. What are ASDs? • Autism Spectrum Disorders • Continuum comprised of autism, Asperger’s, and PDD-NOS (Volkmar & Klin, 2005) • “the concept of autism is evolving from the singular autistic disorder into the plural autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs)” (Filipek, 2005, p.535) • In the 1970s, researchers collected data on children in the UK who had any features of autism • Found that impairments were manifested in many different ways and called it the autistic continuum • Currently, some researchers prefer the term spectrum to continuum because it does not imply a smooth transition from one end to the other (Wing, 2005)

  15. References • American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (Revised 4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. • Filipeck, P.A. (2005). Medical aspects of autism. In F.R. Volkmar, R. Paul, A. Klin, & D. Cohen (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders: Vol 1. Diagnosis, development, neurobiology, and behavior (3rd ed., pp. 534-578). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. • Volkmar, F.R., & Klin, A. (2005). Issues in the classification of autism and related conditions. In F.R. Volkmar, R. Paul, A. Klin, & D. Cohen (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders: Vol 1. Diagnosis, development, neurobiology, and behavior (3rd ed., pp. 5-41). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. • Wing, L. (2005). Problems of categorical classification systems. In F.R. Volkmar, R. Paul, A. Klin, & D. Cohen (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders: Vol 1. Diagnosis, development, neurobiology, and behavior (3rd ed., pp. 583-605). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

  16. Readings and Assignments for Next Class • Write 3 DQs (total) for • DSM-IV-TR section on PDDs • Horner et al. (2005) • Manual on all of today’s material on PDD plus anything you want to add from the DSM