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Debris Accumulation in Loads of Mechanically Harvested Oranges. Timothy M. Spann Michelle D. Danyluk , Robert C. Ebel and Jacqueline K. Burns. Does mechanical harvesting increase the debris in loads of fruit?. Potential for damage to processing equipment

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debris accumulation in loads of mechanically harvested oranges

Debris Accumulation in Loads of Mechanically Harvested Oranges

Timothy M. Spann

Michelle D. Danyluk, Robert C. Ebel and Jacqueline K. Burns

does mechanical harvesting increase the debris in loads of fruit
Does mechanical harvesting increase the debris in loads of fruit?
  • Potential for damage to processing equipment
  • Economic costs of transporting debris instead of fruit
objectives
Objectives
  • How much debris is actually entering the processing stream?
  • Is there more debris as a result of MH?
  • How can debris be reduced or eliminated?
harvest methods sampled
Harvest Methods Sampled
  • All methods were sampled on 3 separate dates, 20 samples per date
    • Valencia in spring 2008
    • Hamlin Winter 2008-09
  • Hand Harvest (control)
  • Oxbo 3220 with & without destemmer
  • Oxbo 3210 with hand pickup
  • Oxbo 3210 with Oxbo 3200 pickup unit (only 1 sampling date)
sampling method
Sampling Method
  • All harvest systems have one common element
    • Transfer of fruit from the “goat” to the trailer
  • 50 – 60 kg samples are collected as the goat dumps fruit into trailer
  • Sample is weighed, debris is removed, sorted, weighed, dried and weighed
slide10
Can the use of the abscission agent 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-pyrazole (CMNP) reduce the amount of debris from mechanical harvesting?
cmnp trials
CMNP Trials
  • Parson Brown
    • December 2007 and January 2008
      • Harvest w/ and w/o CMNP
  • Valencia
    • Two trials April 2008
      • 300 ppm CMNP @ 0, 100, 200 and 300 GPA
    • May 13 and 27, 2008, May and June 2009
      • Speed (0.5 and 1.0 mph) × CPM (145 and 185) × CMNP (+ or −)
    • March and April 2009
      • Shaker frequency x CMNP rate
  • Hamlin
    • December 2008 and January 9 and 30, 2009
      • Shaker frequency x CMNP rate
  • Data collected was the same, except debris was separated into adhering (attached to fruit) and loose (not attached)
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Mechanical harvesting increases debris 2x over hand harvesting
  • Leaves are the largest debris component (60%) followed by small stems (38%)
  • The use of the abscission compound CMNP can reduce debris to levels equivalent to or below hand harvesting
    • Due to reduction in adhering debris