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Chapter 28. Surgical Instruments and Aseptic Technique. Learning Objectives. Name and describe the commonly used surgical instruments State advantages of surgical stapling and list common surgical stapling devices

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chapter 28

Chapter 28

Surgical Instrumentsand Aseptic Technique

learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Name and describe the commonly used surgical instruments
  • State advantages of surgical stapling and list common surgical stapling devices
  • List commonly used instruments and equipment for ophthalmic, orthopedic, and arthroscopic procedures
learning objectives1
Learning Objectives
  • List surgical instruments and supplies routinely included in general and emergency surgical packs for small and large animals
  • Describe procedures for cleaning, packing, and sterilizing instruments
  • Differentiate between sterilization and disinfection
learning objectives2
Learning Objectives
  • List and describe physical and chemical methods of sterilization and methods of quality control of sterilization methods
  • State safe storage times for sterile packs
  • List and describe common antiseptic and disinfectant agents
learning objectives3
Learning Objectives
  • Describe preparation requirements for patients, including skin preparation, patient positioning, and draping
  • Describe preparation requirements for the surgical team and explain the procedures that may be used for hand scrubbing before surgery
  • Describe the procedure for donning surgical attire
  • Describe procedures for opening sterile items
technician s role during surgery
Technician’s Role During Surgery
  • Maintain aseptic technique
  • Assist in surgery
    • Immobilization of body part
    • Tissue retraction
    • Hemostasis control
  • Anticipate instruments needed
general surgery instruments
General Surgery Instruments
  • Thousands of different instruments
    • Increase efficiency
    • Ease performance
  • Specific purpose for each instrument
slide8

The most commonly used material is stainless steel, which is an alloy of iron, chromium, silicon, manganese, nickel, molybdenum, sulfur, phosphorus, and titanium. There are 2 basic compound types:

  • Martensitic- high carbon and low chromium content, rendering it very strong, highly magnetic, and susceptible to corrosion. i.e. thumb forceps, hemostats, retractors, etc.
  • Austenitic- stainless steel is compounded mainly of chromium and nickel. Superior in that is has high tensile strength and is very resistant to corrosion i.e. implants, pans, bowls, handles, and trays
scalpels
Scalpels
  • Blades are task-specific
biomedical lasers
Biomedical Lasers
  • Most common types
    • Carbon dioxide (free beam; noncontact)
    • Neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (contact)

Measured in joules, effect depends on the wavelength

  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages
electrosurgery
Electrosurgery
  • Electric current passes through tissue
    • Cut tissue
    • Coagulate tissue
  • Monopolarelectrosurgery
  • Bipolar electrosurgery
  • Parts
    • Electrosurgical unit
    • Foot switch
    • Monopolarhandpiece
    • Ground plate
    • Bipolar handpiece