http://www.oceansites.org/OceanSITES/ International Time Series Science Team R. Weller OCO Annual Review April 2005
Membership of the International Time Series Science Team Bob Weller WHOI, USA (Co-Chair) Uwe Send IfM Kiel, Germany (Co-Chair) Ed Boyle MIT, USA Francisco Chavez MBARI, USA Tommy Dickey UCSB, USA Dave Karl SOEST, USA Tony Knap Bermuda Station Yoshihumi Kuroda JAMSTEC, Japan Richard Lampitt SOC; UK Joao Lorenzetti INPE, Brazil Roger Lukas SOEST, USA Mike McPhaden PMEL,USA Liliane Merlivat LODYC, France V. S. N. Murty NIO, India Rodrigo Nunez SHOA, Chile John Orcutt SIO, USA Svein Osterhus Bergen Univ., Norway Bronte Tilbrook CSIRO, Australia Hendrik van Aken NIOZ, Netherlands Sylvie Pouliquen Ifremer/Corilois, France
International advocacy and planning to assure continuation and extension of global timeseries observations to address the needs of research, climate change detection, operational applications, and policy makers. This figure shows the heat loss maximum over the Gulf Stream, a region for which meteorological models cannot well reproduce the surface heat flux. Flux reference moorings.
Science applications (monitor, detect, understand and predict): • CO2 uptake by the ocean • biological productivity, biomass, ecosystem variables and fluxes • air-sea fluxes • thermohaline changes, water mass transformation • rapid or episodic changes (mixed-layer, blooms, convection, MOC, etc) • mass/heat transports (boundary current, over/throughflows, MOC) • geophysics Example from the Arabian Sea: Monsoon winds, chlorophyll, heating rate at 10m modulated by biology and mixed-layer depth (white line). Effects of monsoons and eddies visible. (from T.Dickey)
Operational applications: • input data for forecasting systems (in-situ biogeochemical) • constraints (e.g. transports) for assimilation runs • detection of events • validation of products Technical applications (reference/calibrate/verify/...) : • air-sea fluxes • remotely sensed variables (SST, wind, color) • sensor calibration (VOS, T/S of floats, ...) • model statistics, physics and parameterizations (and their variability) • providing sound signals for float naviation, acoustic tomography • testbed for new instrumentation
Timeseries observations complement naturally the other elements of the global observing system (satellites, floats, VOS, sealevel, coastal buoynetworks), filling a gap that no other system can provide. GOAL: Build a global network of multidisciplinary timeseries sites Use autonomous moored sensors where possible In some cases “advanced quantities“ still require ship-board sampling Resolve variability of interest, avoid aliasing Free and open data access
A global ocean timeseries observatory system is now under development • A GOOS/CLIVAR/POGO sponsored (via OOPC/COOP) activity • The system is multidisciplinary in nature, providing physical, meteorological, chemical, biological and geophysical timeseries observations • Goal is to make the data are publicly available as soon as received and quality-controlled by the owner/operator • An international Science Team provides guidance, coordination, outreach, and oversight for the implementation, data management and capacity building • A pilot system (2001-2006) has been defined consisting of all operating sites and those planned to be established within 5 years, subject to evaluation in terms of the qualifying criteria by the Science Team.
Definition of an ocean timeseries site in the global system (requirements): • Sustained in-situ observations at fixed geographic locations of ocean/climate related quantities at a sampling rate high enough to unambiguously resolve the signals of interest. • Transport sections using whatever technique are included in choke points and major boundary current systems (moorings, gliders, ship ADCP, tomography, etc) • Coastal timeseries are included when they are instrumented to have multidisciplinary impact on the global observing system and if they are not part of a national coastal buoy network. • Any implemented site fulfilling criteria will become part of the system but has to deliver its data into the system and to demonstrate successful operation and value after 5 years. • Real-time data telemetry of operational variables will be pursued, i.e.make effort if technically feasible • Data should be made public in near real-time for real-time data or as soon as processed and post-calibrated for other data
http://www.oceansites.org/OceanSITES/ Maintained by Roger Lukas, U Hawaii
Old Map Global Observatory Buoy Sites, Funded and Planned
Adoption of new sites • Choosing sites: • Key locations for a specific discipline • Sites that are characteristic and representative of several disciplines • Sites that will be foci for process studies and coordinated sampling in the region around them • Sites that will be maintained, continuously, for long periods • Data will be freely available
OceanSites common data access: • develop a common data format for multidisciplinary timeseries data (2004) • establish global data centers (1-2 US, 1 Europe, 1 Japan) (2005) • start by merging data from TAO/TRITON/PIRATA, Bermuda, Hawaii, MBARI, ANIMATE, HiLats • define quality control standards • work with programs/P.I.´s to gradually include real-time and delayed-mode data from all sites • Sylvie Pouliquen heads working group developing data formats; • agreement for pilot sharing sites • Interaction with NSF, Ocean.US data, Marine Metadata Initiative folks
Efforts underway to develop a coordinated global system: • multidisciplinary • linking up changes at different locations • detecting patterns • understanding differences between regimes • spreading/propagation of signals/changes • harmonize/share technologies • cross-community synergy, linked variables • common data management and access • common advocacy
OceanSITES challenge: Voluntary, unsupported effort difficult to sustain international involvement, to hold meetings, to get graphics, web support, publications, data management, and other tasks done.