EGYPTIAN ART 3000 B.C.- 1000 B.C.
Farming communities formed along the Nile during the Neolithic period - before 7000 B.C. From approximately 3000 B.C., Egypt was ruled by Pharaohs (kings). Artists worked for the state and its rulers. They had to work under strict rules and guidelines regarding what kind of art they could make.
Egyptian art is said to be timeless. For nearly 3,000 years artists used many of the same artistic rules made by priests. In wall sculptures and paintings, figures are shown in an unnatural way. We have learned a great deal about everyday Egyptian life from the paintings and artifacts that have been found in tombs.
Vocabulary words: • Pharaoh: King of Egypt (thought to be a God) - means “Great house who shelters all his people.” • Book of the Dead: To help the dead on their journey to the after-life. Contained about 200 spells.
Ka: The invisible soul of a dead person that goes to the after-life. It is kept “alive” by grave offerings from the living. • Hieroglyphics: Egyptian writing – made up of pictograms. • Cartouche: An oval or oblong frame that encircles a ruler’s name.
Papyrus: Early form of paper made from the papyrus plant. Strips were placed together, then beaten flat. • Tomb murals: Paintings of a person’s life in his/her tomb. • Linear picture plane: All the forms are in line. No background or foreground.
Horror vacui: Fear of empty spaces. Art crowded with figures. • Hierarchical scale: Art showing more important figures larger than less important figures. • Scribe: A man who wrote on papyrus or carved into walls. Like a secretary, performed any writing duties.
Sarcophagus: Hand made coffin box to hold mummy. • The Stele: Ancient tombstone made of slabs of stone or wood using inscriptions, reliefs or paintings. • Conopic Jars: To hold the inner organs of the human body, which were removed during mummification process.
Color Symbolism- Egyptian Power Stood for the Underworld, Death and Egypt itself Stood for the New life, growth, fertility, vegetation and resurrection Stood for the life, power, victory, blood and fire Stood for the purity, omnipotence, Used on faces of figures Stood for the Eternal life, Sun,indestructable Stood for Creation, water, the Nile
Egyptian Complementary Colors- based on Symbolism Red goes with white Silver goes with Gold Green goes with Black
Egyptian Symbolic Colors to Represent People Gender was represented by color as well as costume. It was a convention to portray men with reddish-brown skin and Women with yellow-tan color. Nubians and people from Africa were often colored darker than Egyptians. People from other nations might be shown in lighter colors. Lighter and darker skin tones were also used to show overlapping figures. This rectangular stone stela honors an official named Mentuwoser. Clasping a piece of folded linen in his left hand, he sits at his funeral banquet, ensuring that he will always receive food offerings and that his family will honor and remember him forever. To the right of Mentuwoser, his son summons his spirit. His daughter holds a lotus, and his father offers a covered dish of food and a jug that, given its shape, contained beer.
Royal Regalia of Ancient Egypt When looking at Wall Art In burial tombs Pharaohs Are drawn with different Types of crowns depending On the part of Egypt that They ruled. Draw these in your Note paper
Symbols of Upper/Lower Egypt Draw the reptiles, plants, &insects on your note paper. Ancient Egyptians believed that the king held divine power so that he could maintain universal order and justice against the forces of choas and Evil. Kings were identified as royalty by specific inscriptions and by Their regalia: The Royal kilt, with an ornamental bull’s tail, symbolizing superhuman power. A group of traditional crowns, with a sacred rearing cobra at the forehead., the rectangular false beard, the crook and flail held by the king across his chest.
Forms in Egypt Art Egyptian artist developed standards, or conventions in their compositions. Notice the different poses and the position of the arms.
The Human Figure Draw this on your note paper. Egyptian artist used conventions for the Human figure. The shoulders are shown from the front. The Torso and hips are three quarter view so that the legs and arms can be seen in profile. The head is also shown in profile with the nose and mouth from the side. The eyes are seen from the front looking directly at the viewer.
Web Links Main Map of Ancient Egypt http://emuseum.mnsu.edu/prehistory/egypt/maps/mainmap.html Ancient Egyptian Culture http://emuseum.mnsu.edu/prehistory/egypt/archaeology/index.html Alabaster Canopic Jar Lids http://members.aol.com/egyptold/jar.html MyStudios - Egyptian Art http://www.mystudios.com/art/ancient/egyptian/egyptian.html