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Human Population Growth. Miller Chapter 11-1. Factors affecting population size. Populations grow or decline through the interplay of three factors. Births Deaths Migration Immigration Emigration. Migration. Emigration – moving away from a population Begins with “E” like exit.

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human population growth

Human Population Growth

Miller Chapter 11-1

factors affecting population size
Factors affecting population size
  • Populations grow or decline through the interplay of three factors
  • Births
  • Deaths
  • Migration
    • Immigration
    • Emigration
migration
Migration
  • Emigration – moving away from a population
  • Begins with “E” like exit
  • Immigration – moving into a population
  • Begins with “I” like into
population change
Population change
  • Population change =

(Births + immigration) – (Deaths + emigration)

When these balance – ZPG (Zero population growth)

birth and death rates
Birth and death rates
  • Calculated as the number of births or deaths per 1000 people in a population in a given year.
fertility rates
Fertility Rates
  • Replacement fertility – number of children needed to replace themselves 2.1 to 2.5 per couple.
total fertility rate tfr
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
  • Estimate of average number of children a woman will have between ages 15-49
  • Current world value of 2.9 would result in a world population of 296 billion in 150 years
fertility rates us
Fertility Rates US
  • US population has increased from 76 million in 1900 to over 276 million.
  • Our fertility rates have dropped since 1950, but we continue to grow very rapidly.
factors that affect birth and fertility rates
Factors that affect Birth and Fertility rates
  • Importance of children in the workforce
  • Urbanization
  • Cost of raising and educating children
  • Educational and employment opportunities for women
  • Increases
  • Decreases – access to family planning
  • Decreases
  • Decreases
slide15

Infant mortality rate

  • Average age of marriage or first child
  • Availability of legal abortions
  • Increases with increasing mortality
  • Increases with lower age
  • decreases
slide16

Availability of reliable birth control

  • Religious beliefs, traditions, and cultural norms
  • Decreases
  • Increases in countries where large families are encouraged