Anorexia Nervosa & Bulimia McLorg & Taub - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Anorexia Nervosa & Bulimia McLorg & Taub

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  1. Part V Chapter 25 Anorexia Nervosa & BulimiaMcLorg & Taub

  2. I. The Study Part 5: Ch. 25

  3. A. Data Analysis Part 5: Ch. 25 • Data derived from self-help group - Bulimics/Anorexics In Self-Help (BANISH) • Weekly two-hour meetings observed for two years • Informal interviews with 15 group members lasting 2-4 hours • Group members were white and all but one female • Primarily college students of upper-middle or lower-upper class households • Duration of eating disorders ranged from 3-15 years

  4. B. Findings Part 5: Ch. 25 • Among most anorexics & bulimics dieting figures prominently • Dieters are conformists in adherence to cultural norms of thinness • Slim bodies regarded as worthy and attractive • Overweight bodies as physically and morally unhealthy: • “obscene” • “lazy” • “slothful”

  5. B. Findings Part 5: Ch. 25 Emphasis on being slim impacts everyone, women most of all given focus on women’s appearance & reflected in fact that many women diet for cosmetic reasons Anorexics and bulimics are also conformist in their strong commitment to other conventional norms and goals: they excel at school and work, join honor societies etc.

  6. B. Findings Part 5: Ch. 25 • (Over) Conformity appears as pervasive in lives & families of anorexics and bulimics – close-knit families with strong attachment to parents • Parents often preoccupied with exercising & food preparation; dieting and loss of weight received much approval • In summary: subjects exhibited stark conformity to cultural norms of thinness, achievement, compliance & parental attachment

  7. C. Primary Deviance Part 5: Ch. 25 • The major inducement for both eating adaptations is drive for slimness: • With slimness comes self-respect & sense of superiority over “unsuccessful dieters” • Primary deviance: although subjects exhibited anorexic or bulimic behavior, they didn’t consider themselves to be anorexic or bulimic

  8. C. Primary Deviance Part 5: Ch. 25 Significant others at first complimented weight loss of subjects until they approached emaciation & then became concerned Significant others became aware of anorexic’s compulsive exercising, food prep, and eating rituals Significant others began to question how bulimic respondents could eat as much as 10,000 calories a day & still stay slim; some subjects “caught in the act”

  9. D. Secondary Deviance Part 5: Ch. 25 Gradually family & friends or medical personnel labeled respondents “anorexic” or “bulimic” Anorexics tended to resist & deny the label: they were not skinny or skeletal in appearance, merely “ultra-healthy" Several respondents admitted they were anorexic following realization that their lives were disrupted by their eating disorder

  10. D. Secondary Deviance Part 5: Ch. 25 Bulimics in contrast more readily admitted their deviance when confronted Secondary deviance is a response to society’s labeling: it is generally prolonged, alters self-concept, and affects performance of social roles. Application of eating disorder labels results in secondary deviance: respondents internalize these new identities Eating disorder gradually became central focus of subject’s life: role engulfment

  11. D. Secondary Deviance Part 5: Ch. 25 • Eating disorder becomes master status: • The “school brain” becomes the “school anorexic” • As a result subjects’ interactions with others were altered: • Feelings of self-consciousness around others who knew of their disorder, keeping bathroom door open • Subjects suffered negative consequences such as stigmatization from being labeled & responded to on the basis of their eating disorder

  12. Review Questions Part 5: Ch. 25 While anorexics and bulimics are seen as “deviants,” what makes them conformists? What differences exist between anorexics & bulimics in terms of accepting a “deviant” identity?

  13. Part V Chapter 26 Convicted Rapists’ Vocabulary of MotiveScully & Marolla

  14. I. The Study Part 5: Ch. 26

  15. A. Data Analysis Part 5: Ch. 26 • Study based on interviews with 114 convicted, imprisoned rapists: • 47 admitted they had used force on victim • 35 denied contact with victim • 32 didn’t define their acts as rape • Excuses: • Admitters:Admit wrongfulness of act • Deniers:Deny full responsibility by distancing themselves from blame

  16. II. Justifying Rape: Five Themes Part 5: Ch. 26

  17. A. Women as Seductresses Part 5: Ch. 26 Women in society often portrayed as victims of their own seduction 31% of deniers presented extreme view of victim as not only willing to have sex but also as the aggressor, a seductress who lured them into sexual action 25% of deniers presented less extreme view of victim as willing & made sexual advances 9% of deniers said victim was willing to have sex for money or drugs

  18. B. “No” Means “Yes” Part 5: Ch. 26 • 34% of deniers describe their victim as unwilling at least at first but had not resisted enough or thought “no” meant “yes” (although weapon used in 64% of these cases) • 24% of admitters used claim that victim didn’t resist or not enough to explain why they believed victim was willing & therefore it was not rape

  19. C. Relaxed & Enjoyed It Part 5: Ch. 26 69% of deniers justified their act by drawing on cultural stereotype that once rape began victim not only willing but also enjoyed it 20% of admitters believed victim enjoyed herself

  20. D. Nice Girls Don’t Get Raped Part 5: Ch. 26 69% of deniers and 22% of admitters refer to victims’ sexual reputation (i.e., prostitute or “loose” woman) 22% of deniers & 17% of admitters evoke stereotype that women provoke rape by their seductive dress and attire Intent of these accounts clear: deniers argue victim got what she deserved

  21. E. Minor Wrongdoing Part 5: Ch. 26 Only 16% of deniers claim complete innocence; most accept some responsibility They “plead” guilty to a lesser charge: being oversexed, adulterous, contributing to delinquency of minor, nothing as serious as rape Deniers attempt to discredit and blame the victim while presenting their own actions as justified given the situation

  22. III. Excusing Rape Part 5: Ch. 26

  23. A. Admitters & Excusers Part 5: Ch. 26 • Admitters, unlike deniers, regard their act as morally wrong & beyond justification • They blame themselves rather than the victim • Admitters explain their crime in a way that allow them to retain moral integrity: • they offer excuses to demonstrate intent was absent or responsibility diminished

  24. B. Three Themes in Accounts Part 5: Ch. 26 • (1) Use of alcohol and drugs • 77% of admitters and 72% of deniers equally likely to acknowledge consuming substance but admitters said they were affected by the substance • If not the cause of their conduct, it was at least contributing factor:

  25. Part 5: Ch. 26

  26. B. Three Themes in Accounts Part 5: Ch. 26 • (2) Emotional problems • 40% of admitters report belief an emotional problem at root of their rape behavior such as unhappy childhood or marital-domestic situation • 80% of admitters and 25% of deniers indicate a precipitating event such as upsetting problem of everyday living and the majority involve rage due to a wife or girlfriend

  27. B. Three Themes in Accounts Part 5: Ch. 26 Yet overwhelming majority of rapists not seriously mentally ill just seem less able to cope with ordinary problems of everyday life Admitters portray themselves as temporarily “sick” at time of rape, not “themselves,” hence the rape was idiosyncratic not typical behavior for them Admitters thus assert a non-deviant identity despite expressing disgust for their act

  28. B. Three Themes in Accounts Part 5: Ch. 26 • (3) Nice guy image • Admitters further neutralize their crime and project a non-rapist identity by self-portrayal as a “nice-guy” • 57% of admitters express regret and sorrow for victim • Schlenker & Darby (1981) explain significance of apologies beyond obvious expression of regret: one can admit guilt while at same time seeking pardon

  29. Review Questions Part 5: Ch. 26 What are some of the shared characteristics of admitters & deniers of rape? What are the (external) contributing factors for the views of women in our society?