Chapter 13: DNA Technology. 13-1 The New Genetics. 13-2 DNA Technology Techniques. 13-3 Practical Uses of DNA Technology. 13-1 Chromosomes and Inheritance. I. Manipulating Genes (base sequences). Genes must be IDENTIFIED and ISOLATED before INSERTED from one cell type to another.
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13-1 The New Genetics
13-2 DNA Technology Techniques
13-3 Practical Uses of DNA Technology
I. Manipulating Genes (base sequences)
(1) List three ways that genetic engineering could be used to improve the lives of humans.
(2) What are some common genetic disorders that afflict the human population that may be treatable with DNA biotechnology?
(3) The FDA does not require special labels for genetically engineered food products that are identical to similar products produced by traditional breeding techniques. Do you think that genetically engineered food products should be labeled as such? Why or why not?
(1) To INDUCE a bacterial host cell to express a FOREIGN gene involves the additional transfer of PROMOTERS that turn on the DONOR gene.
(2) The DONOR gene is inserted NEXT to a gene that is normally produced in LARGE quantities within the cell. (i.e., the donor gene is expressed ALONG WITH the host cell’s frequently expressed gene).
I. DNA Fingerprint (investigative tool)
A FOUR-Step Process
(1) DNA sample is CUT into many fragments by R.E.
(2) DNA fragments are SEPARATED by gel electrophoresis.
(3) Radioactive probes ADDED will bind to select DNA fragments.
(4) Photographic FILM allows visualization resulting in a DNA fingerprint.
NOTE: The NUMBER of fragments and LENGTH of each fragment VARY from person to person (UNIQUE GENETIC IDENTITY).
NOTE: DNA fragments (-) MOVE towards the POSITIVE (+) end & DISTANCE traveled is dependent on the SIZE.
NOTE: The DNA fragments on the gel are BLOTTED onto FILTER PAPER once they are done running (TO PRESERVE THE PATTERN).
NOTE STATISTIC: DNA fingerprint compares the HV patterns at FIVE different SITES, and it is HIGHLY unlikely (1 in a million) that ALL five sites compared will MATCH EXACTLY between TWO people.
(1) Original DNA sample (trace amount)
(2) DNA Polymerase (DNA Builders)
(3) Primers (DNA Starters)
(4) DNA Nucleotides (A, T, C, G)
2 shared GOALS have been SET…
(1) To figure out the BASE SEQUENCE of entire human genome (approximately 3 billion base pairs—100,000 genes)
(2) To map (identify AND isolate) the location of GENES on each of our 46 chromosomes.
(1) Improving diagnoses, treatments, and CURES for ~ 4,000 GENETIC disorders.
(2) Improving our understanding of HOW genomes are organized in OTHER species, including how EVOLUTION may occur.
EX: Nasal sprays (w/ NORMAL cystic fibrosis gene) are INHALED into nose and lungs, where there are cells affected by diseased c.f. genes.
NOTE: Opponents worry this KNOWLEDGE of our genome could lead to a new form of discrimination called…
I. Producing Pharmaceutical Products (i.e., medicines)
(1) Human Growth Hormone (HGH) as a treatment for DWARFISM.
(2) Interferon Treat viral infections by PREVENTING replication.
(3) Tissue Plasminogen Activator (TPA) to dissolve blood clots (strokes).
(4) The United States government has stringent regulations requiring researchers to confine genetically engineered organisms to the laboratory. What concerns do you think might have led to the enactment of these regulations?
(1) Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
(2) National Institutes of Heath Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee
(3) Department of Agriculture (USDA)
(4) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
(5) Natural selection is a mechanism of evolution whereby the members of a population who are best adapted to their environment survive and produce offspring. How might natural selection become affected by genetic engineering?