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Global Trends and Innovations in Public Health
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  1. Global Trends and Innovations in Public Health Paula Lantz University of Michigan

  2. Global Trends • Globalization: • Increased migration and travel • Increased rapid communication • Convergence of: • Markets; Technology; Policy • Population: • Exponential growth • Population aging • Some declines in life expectancy • Urbanization

  3. Global Trends Epidemiologic Transition: • Shift from population dynamic of high fertility and high mortality primarily from infectious disease to lower fertility and lower mortality, primarily from chronic disease and injury/violence • Different countries experience transition in different ways

  4. Serious Challenges • Escalating costs of health care • Health system infrastructure • Health system financing • Health services workforce shortages • Leadership

  5. Serious Challenges • Social disparities in health status • Social disparities in access to services • Political threats to health • Environmental threats to health • Food security threats to health • HIV/AIDS • Pandemic influenza

  6. Public Health Innovations—Focus on Prevention • Primary Prevention • Prevention of incidence of disease or injury • Examples: Immunizations; smoking prevention • Secondary Prevention • Identify or control disease processes in their early stages, before signs/symptoms are apparent • Examples: Mammography screening; smoking cessation

  7. Public Health Innovations—Focus on Prevention • Tertiary Prevention • Prevent disability by restoration to optimal level of functioning or prevent further progression of disease • Examples: Rehabilitation after stroke; diabetes management; antiretroviral therapy for HIV

  8. Public Health Innovations Tobacco Control • Primary prevention • Secondary prevention HPV Vaccination

  9. Public Health Innovations Chronic Disease Management • Diabetes • Asthma Economic Incentives: • Pay for Performance (Providers) • Value-Based Insurance Design • Incentives for Patients: • Positive • Negative

  10. Public Health Innovations Focus on essential medicines • Barriers to existing medicines • Inadequate national commitment • Inadequate human resources • Inadequate finance from international community • Lack of coordination of aid • TRIPS agreement • Disincentives for R & D

  11. Public Health Innovations Focus on essential medicines (Millennium Project, 2005) Improving availability Improving rate/relevance of innovation Developing more reliable procurement and supply procedures Promoting safety of medicines

  12. Public Health Innovations Focus on essential medicines Improving affordability Adequate and fair financing Promoting safety of medicines Promoting appropriate use Better prescribing and dispensing Better use of medicines in the home

  13. Public Health Innovations Workforce interventions • Workforce structure and distribution • Centralized versus decentralized policy • Workforce capacity and motivation • Reforms • Training of non-physicians for surgery • Other examples

  14. Public Health Innovations Information Technology • Syndromic Surveillance • Telemedicine Nanotechnology • Consumer products—Benefits and Risks • Medical/therapeutic applications • Environmental concerns

  15. Older Simple Technology Still Critical • Childhood vaccinations • Oral re-hydration therapy • Bed nets • Condoms • Potable water • Sanitation • Basic health education

  16. Investments Needed in Social Determinants of Health • Education • Housing • Income Security • Microfinance • Social Enterprise • Prevention of ethnic and religious conflict