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Jeffersonian America. APUSH. Lewis and Clark. Presidential appointed team / 1804 Meriwether Lewis & William Clark Began in St. Louis, MO and ended in Oregon Significant journey—took detailed notes including encounters with Native Americans Warned of hardships settlers would face moving West

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Lewis and clark
Lewis and Clark

  • Presidential appointed team / 1804

  • Meriwether Lewis & William Clark

  • Began in St. Louis, MO and ended in Oregon

  • Significant journey—took detailed notes including encounters with Native Americans

  • Warned of hardships settlers would face moving West

  • TJ’s goal of finding an all-water route not realized

Marshall court
Marshall Court

  • John Marshall, influential SC justice

  • Federalists passed Judiciary Act (1801) creating 16 new judgeships

  • President Adams wanted to “pack” the courts with Federalists, so he signed off on them at midnight (they took nickname midnight judges)

  • TJ very angry over this court packing scheme

Marshall court1
Marshall Court

  • TJ ordered James Madison not to deliver the appointments of these new judges, blocking them from taking the judgeship

  • One judge, William Marbury (hence Marbury v. Madison) sued under the Judiciary Act of 1789, which granted the SC the authority to enforce judicial commissions

  • JM (John Marshall) was TJ’s cousin & a Federalist

  • JM knew is SC issued a writ of mandamus (forcing Madison to deliver the commissions) TJ would ignore it

  • JM thought if SC did not issue the writ, SC would appear weaker than other 2 branches

Marshall court2
Marshall Court

  • JM declared Madison should have delivered the commission, but the Judiciary Act of 1789 that gave the SC the power to issue the writ was unconstitutional

  • This created “judicial review”, or the idea of judging the constitutionality of a law

  • JM was able to reprimand the Republicans w/o compromising the integrity and power of the SC

  • Under JM, the power of the SC increased big time!!

Marshall court decisions
Marshall Court Decisions

  • Cases expanding the authority of the Supreme Court

    1. Marbury v. Madison (1803) gave the Court the power of judicial review.

    2. U.S. v. Peters (1809) established the Court's right to coerce a state legislature

    3. Martin v. Hunter's Lessee (1816) confirmed the Court's right to overrule a state court

    4. Cohens v. Virginia (1821). States were no longer sovereign in all respects since they had ratified the Constitution. State courts must submit to federal jurisdiction.

Marshall court decisions1
Marshall Court Decisions

  • Cases expanding the powers of Congress

    1. McCullough v. Maryland (1819) upheld the right of Congress to charter a national bank, thus putting into national law the doctrine of implied powers.

    2. Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) gave the national government undisputed control over interstate commerce by ruling invalid a steamboat monopoly chartered by New York state. This freed internal transportation from state restraint.

Marshall court decisions2
Marshall Court Decisions

  • Weakeningthe States

    A. Fletcher v. Peck (1810) established the principle that state laws were invalid when in conflict with the Constitution

    B. Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819) by forbidding the state legislature to alter the college charter, established the principle that charters were contracts which could not be impaired.

    C. Martin v. Mott (1827) denied a state the right to withhold its militia from service.

Legacy of marshall court
Legacy of Marshall Court

  • Established the supremacy of federal government over states in exercising control of economy

  • B. Opened the way for an increased federal role in promoting economic growth (bank ruling)

  • C. Affirmed protection for corporations and other private economic institutions from local governmental interference. This allowed for the growth of the new industrial capitalist economy.

Aaron burr
Aaron Burr

*3rd Vice-President

*Repubs. decided NOT to have Burr for TJ’s 2nd Term

*In 1804, Congress passed 12th Amendment, specifying which ballot was being cast for Pres and which for VP by Electoral College

*Background: Election of 1800 was a tie between TJ and Burr (the VP Candidate). The House decided, and because Alex. Hamilton hated Burr, House chose TJ as President

Burr s revenge
Burr’s Revenge

  • Burr wanted revenge on AH for the Election of 1800 debacle

  • AB joined a small group of radical Federalists called the Essex Junto (group plotting for a New England state secession from the Union) and ran for governor of NY as their leader

  • Hamilton campaigned against Burr as governor, and people of NY did not vote Burr in due to fears of an ex-Rep. (many Federalist voters in NY)

  • AB heard AH made a negative remark about him, and challenged him to a duel; AH could not refuse, so the duel happened in 1804

The duel
The Duel

  • AH would be mortally wounded, and A Bwould be wanted for murder.