Loading in 2 Seconds...
Loading in 2 Seconds...
Agri-Environmental statistics and indicators within FAOSTAT Robert Mayo UNECE/FAO/Eurostat Workshop on Environment Statistics (Budva, Montenegro, May 2013)
FAOSTAT (http://faostat.fao.org) Data for: Agricultural production; Forestry; Fisheries; Land use; Fertilizers, pesticides, water, etc; Emissions – agriculture and Land use; …
FAOSTAT • World’s central repository of national agricultural statistics data and key in: • The development of environmental indicators; • Assessing environmental costs and benefits; • National accounts: with respect to environmental expenditures, environmental taxes and subsidies; • Production and trade in environmental goods and services and hazardous substances, and resource productivity.
Characteristics of Agri-Environmental data • Problems of scale: environmental phenomena are site specific; statistics at the country level may be not very significant in some cases (e.g. “big countries” like Russia, with a variety of landscapes). • Different data sources: questionnaires, surveys, remote sensing, modeling, field measurements. • Different data types: statistical data, geo-referenced maps, etc.
Agri-Environmental data types • Tables • Generally data at country level • Usually from questionnaires • Geo-referenced datasets • Varying spatial resolutions • Vector or raster formats • Possible extraction of statistics according to different subdivisions
Agri-Environmental characteristics Agroecosystems: low biodiversity and high productivity (only for the selected species) maintained through massive artificial inputs (fertilizers, work, pesticides). Natural ecosystems: Natural fluxes, high biodiversity, highly differentiated productivity. Controlled natural ecosystems Fisheries and forestry: Human intervention on natural fluxes via harvest control and enhancement (planting, stocking, fertilization, engineering, pest/predator control), med biodiversity, med productivity.
Linking Policy and Environment AGRICULTURAL POLICY Urbanization Pollution, Wastages, Degradation of natural ecosystems Land Use and Management Land use choices Crop Choice Management practices (fertilizers, pesticides, rotations) External Factors Food demand Preference, Trade, Technology Environmental Outcomes Degradation of ecosystem functions - productivity, diversity, Natural resource status ECONOMIC POLICY Market Responses Prices-inputs,crops- Organizational set-up Natural Factors Climate change, Productivities, Natural hazards, Bio-security Fish & Forest Management Harvest control Enhancement (stocking, plantation, pest control, engineering)
Agri-environmental Indicators An agri-environmental indicator is a summary measure, combining raw data, used to describe the state of the environment, a risk to the environment, a change in the environment, or a driving force behind such a change, that can be attributed wholly or in part to an agricultural activity or activities. from OECD 2000
Agri-environmental Indicators: Policy relevance Example: European directives requiring Agri-Environmental Indicators. Eurostat 2011 Policy relevance: need to monitor the impacts of agriculture on the environment and the environmental performance of the agricultural sector.
Agri-environmental Indicators International activities on Agri-environmental indicators in the last 15 years
FAOSTAT Agri-Env Indicators • Dataset developed following as much as possible the EUROSTAT and OECD frameworks. • At the moment 25 indicators are available, plus a complete new domain on Greenhouse Gases (GHG) Emissions. • Data are from FAO databases and from external sources (e.g. IEA, IFOAM).
FAO collaboration and international methodology • UN/UNECE, World Bank, OECD, EUROSTAT and other agencies in carrying on this work; • Framework of the Development of Environment Statistics(FDES); • System of National Accounts (SNA); • The Central Framework for System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA).
Fertilizers use issues • Run off the land due to heavy rainfall/erosion; • Leaching into groundwater; • Escape in the form of gas into atmosphere.
Overuse and abuse of pesticides at many places E.g.: cotton, vegetables, rice; Highly toxic products: Some countries are lagging behind in phasing out high incidence of accidental and self poisoning; Food safety and other public health risks (residues); Environmental risks ; Market access Pesticide residue requirements are increasingly important in trade; Pesticide quality (Illegal trade in pesticides; counterfeit products; some countries lack sufficient quality control); Obligations under international instruments. Pesticides use issues
Indicator: Pesticides average usage (tonnes /Ha agricultural area, 2008 ) As seen in the previous slide, China is the biggest consumer of pesticides. However, to evaluate the environmental impact it is important to consider the actual average usage (an AgriEnv Indicator).
The world’s forests 31% OF TOTAL LAND AREA 4,000,000,000 ha
Net change = Σ(gain) - Σ(loss) 1990-2000: -8.3 million ha/year 2000-2010: -5.2 million ha/year
Further information and acknowledgements Further information available at: FAO Statistics Division: http://www.fao.org/economic/ess/ess-agri/ess-resource-meth/en/ FAOSTAT : Land, Fertilizers and Pesticides: http://faostat.fao.org/site/575/default.aspx#ancor FAOSTAT : Emissions - Agriculture: http://faostat3.fao.org/home/index.html#DOWNLOAD Acknowledgements: The input of Dominic Ballayan, Giorgia De Santisand Simona Mosco is very much appreciated in preparing this presentation.