Chapter 10 Life Span Development
Life Span Poster Project • Gather pictures from your childhood • 1 from infancy (0-1) • 1 from early childhood (2-4) • 1 from childhood (5-10) • 1 from adolescence (13-15) • 1 recent *Any craft items you may want to add; like, glitter or stickers. I will supply tape, glue, markers, colored pencils, and poster board.
Developmental Psychology • The study of how people change from birth to old age. • “How” and “Why” changes in them occur as people grow older. • 3 enduring issues • Individual characteristic vs. shared human traits • Stability vs. change • Heredity vs. environment
Individual characteristics vs. Shared human traits • This combination is characteristic of all human development • We all take the same developmental journey, but each of us travels somewhat different roads and experience events in different ways.
Stability vs. Change • Human development is characterized by both major life transitions and continuities with the past. Heredity vs. Environment • These two constantly interact to shape how people grow.
Check Your Understanding In a __________ study the researcher studies a group of subjects two or more times as they grow older. a. Cross-sectional b. Retrospective c. Longitudinal
Prenatal Development What factors can affect children before birth?
The Progression of Prenatal Development Prenatal Development-the stage of development from conception to birth. Embryo-a developing human between 2 weeks and 3 months after conception. Fetus-a developing human between 3 months after conception and birth. Placenta-an organ that nourishes the embryo and fetus.
Cont. Teratogens-toxic substances such as alcohol or nicotine that cross the placenta and may result in birth defects. Critical period-a time when certain internal and external influences have a major effect on development; at other periods, the same influences will have little or no effect.
Effects of Teratogens • Alcohol is the drug most often abused by pregnant women (Riley et al., 2003). • Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), a condition characterized by facial deformities, heart defects, stunted growth, and cognitive impairments. • Smoking may cause over 100,000 miscarriages a year. • Babies are more likely to suffer low birth weight which is liked to other developmental problems.
The Newborn Baby What can newborn babies do?
Newborn Babies *Neonates- newborn babies. Reflexes • Rooting • Baby turns its head toward something that brushes its cheek and gropes around with mouth • Sucking • Newborn’s tendency to suck on objects placed in the mouth • Swallowing • Enables newborn babies to swallow liquids without choking • Grasping • Close fist around anything placed in their hand • Stepping • Stepping motions made by an infant when held upright
Reflexes (Cont.) • Babinski • When the sole of a baby’s foot is touched, the toes curl up and out • Moro • The “Startle Reflex” • Babies arms will open when startled, then will be brought in close to the body • Crawling • When placed on the stomach, a baby will make a crawling motion
Temperament • Temperament refers to characteristic patterns of emotional reactions and emotional self-regulation • Thomas and Chess identified three basic types of babies • Easy • Good-natured, easy to care for, adaptable • Difficult • Moody and intense, react to new situations and people negatively and strongly • Slow-to-warm-up • Inactive and slow to respond to new things, and when they do react, it is mild
Temperament cont. • Kagan has added a fourth type • Shy child • Timid and inhibited, fearful of anything new or strange • Temperament may predict later disposition
Perceptual Abilities • Vision • Clear for 8-10 inches • Good vision by 6 months • Depth perception • Visual cliff research • Other senses • Ears are functional prior to birth • Infants particularly tune in to human voices • Taste and smell are fully functional
Check Your Understanding Two reflexes normally disappear after two to three months. They are a. Sucking and swallowing b. Grasping and rooting c. Stepping and grasping d. Stepping and rooting Temperament differences in babies are attributable to a. Biological factors b. maternal emotions during pregnancy c. Parental reactions to an infant’s crying after a baby’s birth d. All of the above Newborns prefer looking at what kind of patterns? a. Colorful ones b. Moving ones c. Contrasting ones
Infancy and Childhood Do young children think differently from adults?
Physical Development • Children grow about 10 inches and gain about 15 pounds in first year • Growth occurs in spurts, as much as 1 inch overnight • Growth slows during second year
Motor Development • Developmental norms • Ages by which an average child achieves various developmental milestones • Maturation • Automatic biological unfolding of development in an organism as a function of passage of time
Jean PiagetSwiss psychologist (1896-1980) • Most influential theorist in the area of cognitive development. • Believed that cognitive development is a way of adapting to the environment. • In his view, children are intrinsically motivated to explore and understand things. • Progress through 4 basic stages of cognitive development.
Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development • Sensory-Motor Stage (birth to 2 years) • Object permanence • Preoperational Stage (2-7 years) • Egocentric; Conservation errors • Concrete Operations (7-11 years) • Principles of conservation; Reversibility • Formal Operations (11-15 years) • Understand abstract ideas
Criticisms of Piaget's Theory • Many question assumption that there are distinct stages in cognitive development • Criticism of notion that infants do not understand world • Piaget may have underestimated influence of social interaction in cognitive development Live!Psych 10.2
“Heinz dilemma” In Europe, a woman was near death from cancer. One drug might save her, a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The druggist was charging $2,000, ten times what the drug cost him to make. The sick woman’s husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only come up with about half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said, “No.” The husband got desperate and broke into the man’s store to steal the drug for his wife. (Kohlberg, 1969) *Should the husband have done that? Why?
Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development (1979, 1981) • Preconventional (preadolescence) • “Good” behavior is mostly to avoid punishment or seek reward • Conventional (adolescence) • Behavior is about pleasing others and, in later adolescence, becoming a good citizen • Postconventional • Emphasis is on abstract principles such as justice, equality, and liberty
Criticisms of Kohlberg’s Theory • Research shows that many people never progress past the conventional level • Theory does not take cultural differences into account • Theory is considered by some to be sexist in that girls often scored lower on tests of morality
Language Development • Cooing (2-3 months) • Non-descript sounds • Babbling (3-4 months) • Make the sounds of all language • Grunts, “ba”, “da” • Intonation (4-6 months) • Rising and lowering of pitch • Can distinguish between own language and foreign language • By 1 year, babies use intonation to communicate • Excitement, Anger, Curiosity
Language Dev’t (cont.) • By 6 months, babies can recognize their own names • First words (12 months) • Dada • Holophrases (12-18 months) • One word sentence • “Up!”, “Down!”, “More!”
Language (con’t) • Naming (1-2 years) • “Dog!” (very often used incorrectly for objects of any similarity) • Short Sentences (2 years) • “My ball”, “I do it” • Long sentences (2-3 years) • “Lea sad” becomes “Lea is sad” • Overregularizaton • “Goed” instead of “went” • Good news: These kids get the basic rules • By 5-6, vocabulary is 2,500 words
Theories of Language Development • Skinner theorized that language develops as parents reward children for language usage • Repeating a baby’s noise • Congratulating them for communicating • Chomsky proposed the language acquisition device • A neural mechanism for acquiring language presumed to be “wired into” all humans • Criticism: Children who were not “reinforced” as often (grew up in institutions or homes) developed more slowly
Language Development • Bilingualism and the development of a second language • When small children learn two languages at once, they have one Broca’s area • When adolescents learn a second language, two Broca’s areas are needed
Social Development Parent-Child Relationships in Childhood
Development of Attachment • Lorenz and Imprinting • Tendency to follow the first moving thing seen • Occurs in many species of animals- not humans! • If we hatched a chick and put a dog in front of it, the dog becomes the Mommy. • Attachment • Humans form a bond with those who care for them in infancy • Based upon interaction with caregiver • Autonomy • Sense of independence • Socialization • Process by which children learn appropriate attitudes and behaviors
Secure • Will explore freely while the mother is present, will engage with strangers, will be visibly upset when the mother departs and happy to see the mother return • Child will not engage with a stranger if their mother is not in the room • Knowledge of a “secure base”
Anxious-Ambivalent (or Resistant) Insecure • Anxious of exploration and of strangers, even when the mother is present • Child is extremely distressed when mother departs • When mother returns, child will remain close to the mother but resentful and resistant when the mother initiates attention • Baby may also hit or push his mother and doesn’t “cling”
Anxious-Avoidant Insecure • Will avoid or ignore the caregiver - showing little emotion when the caregiver departs or returns • May run away from his caregiver when they approach and fail to cling to them when they pick him up • The child will not explore very much regardless of who is there. Strangers will not be treated much differently from the caregiver • There is not much emotional range displayed regardless of who is in the room or if it is empty.
Relationships With Other Children • Solitary play • Children first play by themselves • Parallel play • As they get older, children play side-by-side with other children, but not interacting • Cooperative play • By about 3 or 3½, children begin playing with others
Relationships With Other Children • Peer group • A network of same-aged friends and acquaintances who give one another emotional and social support • When children start school, peers begin to have greater influence • Non-shared environment • Unique aspects of the environment that are experienced differently by siblings
Baumrind’s Parenting Styles • Authoritarian • Tightly control children’s behavior and insist on obedience • Can produce children who have poor communication skills, who are moody, withdrawn, and distrustful • Permissive-indifferent • Parents have too little control and often are indifferent and neglectful • Children tend to become overly dependent and lack social skills and self-control
Baumrind’s Parenting Styles • Permissive-indulgent • Parents are very attentive and supportive, but do not set limits on behavior • Children tend to be immature, disrespectful, impulsive, and out of control • Authoritative • Parents provide firm structure, but are not overly controlling • Parents listen to their children’s opinions and explain their decisions, bur are still clearly in charge • Children tend to become self-reliant and socially responsible
Scenario • You receive a bad grade on your report card (not that this would ever happen to you)… • You walk in the door and your parent….
Role Play!!! • Read your assigned parenting style and reenact a scenario in which the parent displays this behavior and the child reacts
Sex-Role Development • Gender identity • Knowledge of being a boy or girl • Occurs by age 3 • Gender constancy • Child realizes that gender cannot change • Occurs by age 4 or 5
Sex-Role Development • Gender-role awareness • Knowing appropriate behavior for each gender • Gender stereotypes • Beliefs about presumed characteristics of each gender • Sex-typed behavior • Socially defined ways to behave different for boys and girls • May be at least partly biological in origin