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Process industries and Human Factors: Where are we?. It’s all about us. Area that seems poorly understood But a subject matter that will be familiar to most people

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it s all about us
It’s all about us
  • Area that seems poorly understood
  • But a subject matter that will be familiar to most people
  • Definition: “Human factors refers to environmental, organisational and job factors and human and individual characteristics which influence behaviour at work in a way which can affect safety”
slide3

Technology

Number

of

Accidents

Management Systems

Human

Factors

Time

Human Factors and Safety

How to achieve the last step?

prism human factors network
PRISM Human Factors Network
  • Objectives: The improvement of safety in the European process industries trough raising awareness of, and sharing experience in, the application of Human Factors approaches and stimulating their development and improvement to address industry relevant problems in batch and continuous process industries.
prism orientation
PRISM Orientation

Focus on :

  • Cultural and organisational factors
  • Optimising human performance
  • Human factors in high demand situations
  • Human factors as a part of the engineering design process
slide6

Cultural and Organisational Factors

2.Optimising human performance

3.Human factors in high demand situations

4.Human factors as a part of the engineering design process

slide7

Safety Culture

Attitudes and behaviour

Involvement

Leadership

Management commitment and support

Employee involvement

Participation

Behaviour

Teamworking

safety culture a definition
Safety Culture: a definition?
  • “The way things are done”
  • “The attitude of staff”
  • “Beliefs, norms and behavioural dispositions that impact on safety”

What is your definition?

What does a good culture look like?

safety climate
Safety Climate
  • “The concrete way to approach Safety Culture”
  • “The tangible outputs of the Safety Culture as viewed by individual group at a particular point in time”
  • Measurement through surveys, questionnaires.

Do the questionnaires hide the safety culture of the company?

team working definition
Team working: Definition
  • “A high-performing team of 5-15 people, with the technical skills , knowledge and authority to make decisions that would formerly have been made by a supervisor.
  • They are appointed to manage themselves because the team members are the most familiar with the task they perform, therefore are the best to make improvements.”
team working
Team working
  • Strong and positive relationship can exist between self-managed team and safety
  • More involvement in safety management
  • Maintenance of good safety performances with safer working practices
behavioural safety key principles
Programme ownership

Definition of safe and unsafe behaviours

Establishment of a baseline

Training

Observation

Feedback

Reinforcement

Goal-setting

Review

Behavioural safety: key principles
barriers and pitfalls
Barriers and pitfalls
  • It can take a long time to see the benefits
  • Employees may dislike the idea of observing others and being observed
  • Existing communications can be overloaded with the information produced

This can lead to inaction and discouragement

success factors
Success factors
  • Active participation of workforce and management
  • Issue card reminders and checklists of behaviours that need to be observed
  • Constantly reinforce and encourage behavioural change
slide15

Cultural and Organisational Factors

2.Optimising human performance

3.Human factors in high demand situations

4.Human factors as a part of the engineering design process

optimising human performance
Optimising Human Performance

Through:

Procedures

Training

  • Incorporation of Human Factors in the design process (cf FG4)
procedures and compliance
Procedures and compliance
  • Well known fact: people don’t respect procedures!

WHY?

Complex, not updated, too restrictive, do not describe the best way to do the job…

Are the procedures written to help the readers or to protect the writer?

procedures

My procedure will ensure the task is performed correctly

Procedures

I know how to do this task, I don’t need a procedure

Do we need a procedure for each task?

decision aid
Decision Aid

No Written Instruction required: NWI

Job Aid required e.g checklist/memory aid: JA

Step By Step instruction required: SBS

training and competence
Training and competence

Training helps people acquire the skills, knowledge and attitudes to make them competent in the health and safety aspects of their works.

training
Training
  • Should be defined as a function of the needs found in the plant

What does the trainee need to learn?

What skills?

  • Implementation of a training management

Annual training plan, training team, assessment, refreshment…

slide22

Cultural and Organisational Factors

2.Optimising human performance

3.Human factors in high demand situations

4.Human factors as a part of the engineering design process

cognitive task load analysis
Cognitive task load analysis
  • Time occupied
  • Level of information processing
  • Task set switching

The combination of the three load factors determines the cognitive task load

3d cognitive model
3D Cognitive Model

High task load

Task load matches operator mental capacity

Sub optimal performance due to under load

the tno model
The TNO model

Association of :

Function analysis

Cognitive task load analysis

The integration of both these models in combination with a scenario-based context assessment will help identify potential high demand situations.

why alarm handling
Why alarm handling?

A wide issue about assuring the human response to an alarm

Operators routinely ignore alarm in the plant control room

Operators facing as few as 10 alarms a minute in an emergency will quickly abandon the alarm list to reduce stress. They will find a way to solve the problem without using the alarms.

how to face this problem
How to face this problem?

Implementation of an alarm philosophy

Notify operators of events required more focused attention

Help to prioritise response

Guide operator towards most appropriate response

benefits
Benefits
  • Easier to interpret alarms for operators
  • Better control of processes
  • Help avoid accidents

“A typical plant can save approximately $3 500 000 per year by providing good control during plant incidents and transition events such as start-ups, feed changes, etc.”

slide29

Cultural and Organisational Factors

2.Optimising human performance

3.Human factors in high demand situations

4.Human factors as a part of the engineering design process

slide30
“We cannot change the Human Condition but we can change the conditions in which humans work.”

James Reason

how to incorporate hf in the design process
How to incorporate HF in the design process?

To take human factors into account as part of the process engineering design process requires the design of:

  • Equipment,
  • Operations,
  • Procedures,
  • Work environments.

such that they are compatible with the capabilities, limitations and needs of the workers

procedure to reduce human errors within a project
Procedure to reduce Human Errors within a project

Identification of Errors Causes

Task analysis

Action error analysis

Performance shaping factor

Design solution to address the Error Causes

task analysis
Task analysis
  • Identification of the list of human operations performed and their relation to the system task
  • Specification of the systems’ manning level
  • Identification of training needs
  • Writing of operating procedures

Associated tools: Hierarchical task analysis

action error analysis
Action error analysis
  • Review of plant safety in case the operator acts wrongly or does not act at all
  • Check of the operators workload in case of demands occurring simultaneously or in fast sequence
  • Review if the operator is able to relate alarm and the cause clearly

Associated tools:

the cognitive support model

performance shaping factors
Performance shaping factors

Identify if there could be factors that affect the task performance

stress, work procedures, quality of work environment…

slide36

Design solution to address the error causes

Automation

Maintainability and Operability

Designing to reduce

Human Error Precursors

Process Control and Monitoring

Process Operationsand Layout

Work Environment

conclusion
Conclusion
  • No more need to demonstrate that Human Factors improve Safety
  • Which will be the next step?

Too soon to think about it: still a long way to go with Human Factors

More information available on: www.prism-network.org