The Human Microbiome Project . Brie Bibb David Chong Julia Cochran Brandon Crostick Nick Niland. What makes a human? . Human metabolic features- combo of human and microbial traits Microbiota- microrganisms that live inside and on humans
Found in bacteria and archeae
Freitas and Merkle, 2004
One prominent methanogenicarchaeon.
Relman, D. 2009
Venter et. al. 2001
Comparison of random metagenome reads with completed genome of B. longum and M. smithii
-Most metabolic functions were similar between the two subjects, but there were differences in a few functional categories, possibly caused by differences in diet and lifestyle.
-81 different glycoside hydrolase families were found in the microbiome, many of which are not present in the human glycobiome, helps break down and metabolize glucose, galactose, fructose, arabinose, manose, xylose.
The odds ratio of human genome (red), bacterial genome in KEGG (blue), and archaeal genome (yellow). The graph shows that the human distal gut metabolic functions can regulate most metabolic processes, however, the presence of certain bacteria and archaea do contribute to metabolic processes
KEGG(kyoto encycopedia of genes and genomes), COG’s(clusters of orthologous groups). Used to compare function groups of genes against a baseline bacterial metabolism. And score for enrichment
COGs representing enzymes in the MEP (2-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate) pathway, used for biosynthesis of deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate (DXP) and isopenteryl pyrophosphate (IPP), are notably enriched (P G
0.0001; relative to all sequenced microbes)
DXP is a precursor in the biosynthesis of vitamins essential for human
health, including B1 and B6
Some bacteria use the MEP pathway instead of the mevanolate pathway for IPP biosynthesis
This could be detrimental to gut flora and potentially the host
This helps remove H2 from the gut via methanogenesis.