Chilean Independence¡Chile today, hot tamale! CieraFerrone, Silas Hill, Anna Aspenson, Sarah Risley
Pre – Independence • By 1550 the Spaniards had established several settlements: Santiago, Concepcion, and Valdivia • The Araucanians were the only native group to remain “uncontrolled” by the Spanish. • In 1553 the Araucanian people successfully rebelled in warfare that lasted over 100 years.
More Pre – Independence • The Chilean people were divided into 3 main classes: • The rich land owners • Peasants and servants • Indigenous peoples who lived as a separate nation • The classes remained mostly the same even after independence
Rich landonwners Peasants and Domestic Servants Indigenous People (as a separate nation) CHILEAN SOCIAL STRUCTURE
Even more pre – independence! • Chile developed slowly because: • It had no silver or gold deposits • Neither Natives nor Colonists were willing to work • Chile was far from main economic/colonization centers mainly Peru. • The townspeople did not import or export but traded with other colonies for necessities.
¡WAR of INDEPENDENCE! • Chacabuco in 1817 and Maipú in 1818 • Chacabuco: San Martin and Bernardo O’Higgins joined forces to liberate Peru and Chile • O’Higgins and Martin defeated the Spaniards • Maipú: the final battle won by San Martin that gave Chile indepence
¡More War! • The majority of the soldiers were mestizos and indigenous • The war was fought mostly with guerilla warfare
Liberals? Conservatives? • Federalists • Promoted public welfare • Development of natural resources • Resentful of “conservatives” • Spoke for land owners, merchants, and artisans from the northern and southern provinces • Led by O’Higgins • Land owners of Central Valley • Authoritarian government • Church and state unity • For permanent independence • Most Creoles were Conservative • Led by Carrera
Post – War Chile • O’Higgins was named Director General of Chile and ruled as a dictator • Chilean people were divided between Carrera and O’Higgins. • Carrera supported authoritarian, conservative government, mainly supported by the elite
Post – War Chile • O’Higgins supported liberal movements and wanted to weaken the Chilean elite • O’Higgins ordered Carrera’s execution and his popularity rapidly declined • In 1823, because of hostility towards his regime, he was forced to abdicate office and was exiled
Mas Post War en Chile • A constitution was established in 1822 • Slavery was abolished in 1823 • In 1833, conservatives adopted a constitution to solidify the oligarchy’s power • The president had: • Veto power • Appointment of all officials • Declare war • Control of all elections
Even More! • Economy • Trade with Spain declined • Trade across the Andes declined • Trade (Grain) with Peru was lost • Overall exports and imports increased (Copper and Silver) • Import tariffs were the major source of income for the Chilean state • Taxes were minimal because most of the population was poor
¡MasMasMas! • Chile depended mainly on imports, mostly from Great Britain • Main economic capital: • Trade • Mining • Agriculture • Banking • Industry
Chile today…. Hot tomale • One of America’s most stable and prosperous nations • Bicameral congress • Independent judiciary system