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Chile. “Republica de Chile”. Flag and Coat of Arms. The star represents a guide to progress and honor. Blue symbolizes the sky. White is for the snow covered Andes. Red stands for blood spilled to gain independence. Was designed in 1834 by Charles Wood Taylor

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“Republica de Chile”

flag and coat of arms

Flag and Coat of Arms

  • The star represents a guide to progress and honor.
  • Blue symbolizes the sky.
  • White is for the snow covered Andes.
  • Red stands for blood spilled to gain independence.
  • Was designed in 1834 by Charles Wood Taylor
  • Condors are the most prominent bird in Chile.
  • The hemul is a rare mammal in Chile.
  • The two animals are wearing the Navy’s crown that symbolizes the heroic deeds of the Navy.
  • The feathers resemble the hats Presidents used to wear and the motto “Por la razon o la fuerza” means “By right or mind” and is the national motto.


  • Chile spans along most of the western border of South America.
  • Total area is 292, 260 square miles.
  • Slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana.
  • Extends approx. 2,700 miles north to south.
  • The southern tip of Chile, Cape Horn, is only 400 miles North of Antarctica.
  • Average width of the country is only about 110 miles.
  • Peru and Bolivia border it to the North, Argentina to the East, and the Pacific Ocean to the West.
  • The capital of Chile is Santiago
  • The Andes mountains run along basically all of Chile. Since the country is so big, the climate is very diverse.
history 1 pre colonial period

History-1(Pre-Colonial Period)

  • Before the Spanish conquest of Chile about 500,000 Indians inhabited it.
  • Spanish conquest of Chile began in 1536-1537.
  • Diego de Almagro and Francisco Pizarro invaded Chile in search of “Another Peru.”
  • They found neither gold nor civilization so returned back to Peru.
  • In 1540-1541 Pedro de Valdivia returned and conquered and colonized the area.
  • In 1553, the Araucanian Indians rose up in revolt and killed Valdivia.
  • The Chilean conquest was finally completed by Governor Don Garcia Hurtado de Mendoza during the late 1550’s.
history 2 colonial period

History-2(Colonial Period)

  • Settlers could not find many valuable metals so they turned to agriculture.
  • In 1600 the Mestizo culture started to grow rapidly and was one of the most prominent in the region.
  • In 1758 courses were opened at the University of San Felipe in Santiago and attracted various students throughout the Andes region.
  • Intellectual life in Chile during the period developed slowly.
history 3 struggle for independence

History-3(Struggle for Independence)

  • September 18, 1810 local leaders were elected at a town meeting to start the movement towards gaining independence from Spain.
  • On October 1-2, 1814 Jose Miguel Carerra and his brothers, who desired complete independence from Spain fought in the Battle of Rancagua lost and moved to Argentina.
  • Jose de San Martin raised an army to try and defeat the Spaniards to gain independence.
  • Finally after many years of struggle Chile gained its independence on February 12, 1818.
Chile is split up in three major zones: the northern desert region, central Mediterranean zone, and humid-cool southern region.
  • Chile crosses 38 degrees of latitude allowing it to have many climates.
  • If snow falls in central Chile it doesn’t stay on the ground for more than a couple hours.
  • During the summer cold sea winds keep temperatures down and don’t allow heat waves.
  • North of 27 degrees south latitude there is virtually no rainfall.
  • Average rainfall in Santiago is 13 inches a year.
  • Volcanic eruptions, volcanic earthquakes, tsunamis, are all common.




  • Republic of Chile
  • President Michelle Bachelet (March 2006)
  • President is head of state and government
  • Executive, Legislative, and Judicial branches
  • Senate has 38 seats and is bicameral
  • Chamber of Deputies has 120 seats.
  • Supreme Court judges are appointed by the senate every three years.


  • GDP: $ 202.7 billion (2006)
  • GDP per capita: $12,6oo (2006)
  • 6.94 million labor force
  • 7.8 % unemployment rate.
  • 18.2% population below poverty line.
  • Agricultural products include: grapes, apples, pears, onions, wheat, corn, oats, peaches etc…
  • Industries include: copper and other minerals, fish processing, iron and steel, cement, and textiles.
  • $58.21 billion in exports.
  • Trade partners: U.S.A., Argentina, Japan, and Brazil.
  • Currency is the Chilean Peso.


  • Population is 16,284,741 (2007)
  • Average age is 30.7 years old; 29.8 male,
  • and 31.7 female.
  • Birth rate is 15.03/1000 population.
  • Death rate is 5.87/1000 population.
  • Life expectancy is 76.96 years old; 73.69 for males, 80.4 for females.
  • White and White Amerindian 95%, Amerindian (native) 3%, Other 2%.


  • 95.7 % Literacy Rate
  • Primary and High School education is mandatory for Chilean students.
  • Education is free and public.
  • Primary school is from 5-13 years of age.
  • Secondary school is from 13-18 years of age.
  • - University Selection Test to get into college.

(University of Santiago)



"Chile." Encyclopedia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 4  Oct.  2007  .

CIA World Factbook