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The French and Indian War and Colonial Tension

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  1. The French and Indian War and Colonial Tension Unit 2, Lesson 1

  2. Essential Idea • Following the French and Indian War, England’s policies caused the colonies to consider independence.

  3. French and Indian War • Causes: • England and France had long fought for dominance in Europe • Both countries also claimed land in America • England and France built forts and began to fight over the Ohio River Valley

  4. Major Events • The Albany Congress • The Albany Congress- In 1754, delegates (representatives) from seven colonies met in New York • Led by Benjamin Franklin, the delegates developed the Albany Plan of Union • This plan proposed the colonies unite and form a federal (central) government

  5. Impact of Albany Plan • The colonies ultimately rejected the Albany Plan • The Albany Plan was important because it was the FIRST time the colonies considered UNITING

  6. Fighting • The French and some Indian tribes fought on one side, English (British) and colonists fought on the other • George Washington became a hero to the colonists for his courage during the war • England was able to win largely because its superior navy blocked supplies between France and “New France” • Spain eventually joined France, but England won the war in 1763

  7. Treaty of Paris (1763) • The Treaty: • Treaty of Paris (1763) • Terms: • The French and Indian War (and Seven Years War) ended with England as the winner • France gave the eastern part of New France to England • To compensate Spain, France gave the western part of New France to Spain, including New Orleans

  8. Britain’s Colonial Policies Evolve • Pontiac’s Rebellion: • Colonists had crossed the Appalachian Mountains to settle new land, encroaching on Indians • In 1763, Indian Chief Pontiac responded by leading attacks on British forts • Pontiac's Rebellion • British troops stopped the rebellion, but wanted to prevent further conflict

  9. Continue Salutary Neglect? • Salutary Neglect: • Prior to the war, England’s policy toward the colonies was largely hands-off (salutary neglect) • The French and Indian War made England take more control of the colonies, especially after Pontiac’s Rebellion

  10. England Tightens Its Grip • England was in debt because of war • England had new territory to govern and protect with soldiers, which was expensive • England felt that the colonies should pay to reduce English debt and pay for English soldiers • England’s new policies to solve its financial problems made colonists grow resentful and some considered independence

  11. Proclamation of 1763 • “Round One” • British Action: • Proclamation of 1763- King George III ordered no more colonial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains • Colonial Response: • Colonists were angry because they wanted more land and many moved west anyway, ignoring the law

  12. The Sugar Act (1764) • British Action: • Sugar Act of 1764- this law taxed sugar and molasses, mainly impacting merchants • Merchants caught smuggling were deemed guilty until proven innocent • Colonial Reaction: • Many felt England had no right to pass taxes if colonies had no representatives in British Parliament • The phrase “no taxation without representation” became popular

  13. Quartering Act (1765) • British Action: • Quartering Act- required colonists to provide food and shelter to British soldiers • Colonial Reaction: • Resentment grew, forming the basis for the future 3rdAmendment to the US Constitution

  14. The Stamp Act (1765) • British Action: • Stamp Act of 1765- this act was the first DIRECT TAX on the colonists (not just merchants) • Almost all printed materials were taxed, including newspapers, posters, deeds, and even playing cards • The Stamp Act

  15. Stamp Act Opposed • Colonial Reactions: • Vigilante groups like the Sons of Liberty organized demonstrations and terrorized tax collectors • Colonial delegates formed the Stamp Act Congress and asked the king to repeal the law • Non-importation agreements- many colonists agreed to boycott British products

  16. Stamp Act Repealed • British Action: • Because of colonial protest and boycotts, England repealed the Stamp Act • Declaratory Act- to save face, this law declared England’s authority to makes laws for the colonies

  17. Townshend Acts • “Round Two” • British Action: • Townshend Acts- this series of acts taxed items like tea, paper, and glass • Writs of Assistance- general warrants to search colonists’ property for smuggled goods • Violators were tried in admiralty courts where they were presumed guilty

  18. Colonists Protest Again • Colonial Reaction: • John Dickinson’s “Letters From a Farmer in Pennsylvania” argued “no taxation without representation” • Samuel Adams distributed the “circular letter,” criticizing the Townshend Acts • Colonists resumed non-importation agreements

  19. The Boston Massacre • British Action: • Britain dispatched 1,000 troops to Boston to keep order, where colonists heckled them • Boston Massacre- British soldiers fired on a heckling crowd of colonists, killing five • The Boston Massacre • Colonial Reaction: • Radicals like Samuel Adams used newspapers to portray England as oppressive tyrants • Colonists were furious, but tensions calmed when Britain repealed most of the Townshend Acts

  20. Paul Revere’s Version

  21. 1856 Bias?