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Plant Life Cycles. Chapter #2. What is a Life Cycle?. from the time a seed is planted until a seed is produced. What are the Life Cycles?. Annuals, Biennials, & Perennials. Annual. complete life cycle in one growing season

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Presentation Transcript
what is a life cycle
What is a Life Cycle?
  • from the time a seed is planted until a seed is produced
what are the life cycles
What are the Life Cycles?
  • Annuals, Biennials, & Perennials
  • complete life cycle in one growing season
  • can be summer annuals (spring wheat, barley) or winter annuals (winter wheat)
  • require two growing seasons to produce seed
  • first season plant produces vegetation, second season seed (sugar beet, carrot)

indefinite growth, can produce seed annually (grasses, trees, shrubs, onion)

what is a seed
What is a Seed?
  • package containing an embryo (miniature plant) and food
  • seeds are alive, need air
what is germination
What is Germination?
  • process where embryo changes to seedling (growing plant)
what conditions are necessary for germination
What conditions are necessary for germination?

1) moisture

2) correct temperature

3) air

4) some seeds need light

5) some seeds need help (break seed coat [sunflower], remove a chemical from seed, heat, chill [winter wheat])

what are warm season crops
What are Warm Season Crops?
  • soil temperature must be 70 degrees F or more for germination (corn, rice, cotton, melons)
what are cool season crops
What are Cool Season Crops?
  • soil temp below 70 degrees F (wheat, barley, beets)
how deep do seeds need to be planted
How deep do seeds need to be planted?
  • the size of the seed determines
  • larger seed = deeper
  • corn = 4"
  • bluegrass = 1/4"
germination process
Germination Process

1) seed absorbs water, swells

2) water activates enzymes which help digest stored food

3) root grows

4) shoot emerges (is now a seedling)

what is vegetative growth
What is vegetative growth?
  • plant produces food for itself
  • extra food is stored in roots, stems, etc.
what is tillering stooling
What is Tillering (Stooling)?
  • when new stems are formed in grass plants
what is jointing
What is Jointing?
  • stems of grass plants elongate rapidly
what is respiration
What is Respiration?
  • process how plants get energy from its stored food
how is food stored in plants
How is food stored in plants?
  • form of carbohydrates (sugars)
how does respiration work
How does respiration work?

Food + Oxygen --> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy

what factors can influence the rate of respiration
What factors can influence the rate of respiration?

1) high temps = high rate of respiration

2) high amounts of light = high rate

3) high amounts of water = high rate

what is photosynthesis
What is Photosynthesis?
  • process of converting water and carbon dioxide into food (sugar) and oxygen in the presence of chlorophyll and light
  • photosynthesis and respiration are opposite cycles
what is transpiration
What is Transpiration?
  • process of returning water to the air (in the form of gas)
  • 99% of water taken in by roots is transpired
  • Wilt = plant transpires more than it takes in
what are nutrients
What are Nutrients?
  • elements needed by plants to grow
what are macronutrients
What are Macronutrients?
  • needed in large amounts
  • C, H, O, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S)
  • plants get C, H, O from air and water
what are secondary nutrients
What are Secondary Nutrients?
  • Ca, Mg, S
  • needed less
what are micronutrients
What are Micronutrients?
  • needed in small amounts, but essential
  • excess amounts are toxic
  • Fe, Bo, Mn, Zn, Mo, Cu, Cl
16 essential nutrients
16 Essential Nutrients
  • C HOPKNS CaFe Mg B Mn CuZn ClMo
  • C Hopkins Café Managed By Mine Cousin Clomo