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Infant and Toddler Development Part 3: 6 to 18 Months. Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Core In-Service November 13, 2008 10:00-11:30 a.m. Debbie Richardson, M.S. Parenting Assistant Extension Specialist Human Development & Family Science Oklahoma State University . Introduction.

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infant and toddler development part 3 6 to 18 months

Infant and Toddler DevelopmentPart 3: 6 to 18 Months

Oklahoma Cooperative Extension ServiceCore In-Service November 13, 2008 10:00-11:30 a.m.

Debbie Richardson, M.S.

Parenting Assistant Extension Specialist

Human Development & Family Science

Oklahoma State University

introduction
Introduction
  • Welcome
  • Centra Instructions
  • Overview of In-service
  • Resource Materials

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

in service objective
In-Service Objective

Extension Educators will be able to

describe growth, tasks, behaviors, and abilities of infants from six through 18 months including physical, cognitive, social and emotional development.

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

integrating the domains
Integrating the Domains

Cognitive

Physical

Social

Emotional

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

slide5

7-9 Months

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

7 9 months
7-9 Months

Physical

  • Moro (startle) reflex disappears
  • Teething
  • Gaining weight at slower rate – about 1 lb/month
  • Bladder and bowel systems becoming more regulated.

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

7 9 months7
7-9 Months

Gross Motor

  • Rolls over both ways
  • Sits alone steady
  • Scooting, crawling
  • Pull self to stand
  • Movements becoming well integrated and automatic

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

7 9 months8
7-9 Months

Fine Motor

  • Uses forefinger to poke objects
  • Pincer grasp - Picks up small object with thumb & forefinger
  • Feeds self cracker or cookie
  • Attempts to secure 3rd cube without dropping 2 others
  • Throws or shakes objects

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

7 9 months9
7-9 Months

Cognitive

  • Visual acuity close to adults. Developing depth perception.
  • Works to get desired object out of reach.
  • Using toys in more complex ways.
  • Objects or resists if a toy is taken away.
  • Looks at correct picture when object is named.
  • Practices & repeats activities, especially cause & effect.

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

7 9 months10
7-9 Months

Cognitive (cont’d)

  • Expanding awareness of relationship of own actions to environment (4-8 mo.)
  • Uncovers a hidden object. Looks for object in place they first found it after seeing it hidden, even if they later see it moved to another place (8-12 mo.)
  • Attains object permanence (constancy), awareness that objects exist when not seen (8-12 mo.)
  • Combining schemas to achieve a desired effect; earliest form of problem-solving (8-12 mo.)

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

7 9 months11
7-9 Months

Language

  • Sounds like ga, ba, goo (1 syllable) then like mama, dada. Putting consonants & vowels together.
  • Understands ‘no’ and own name (9-10 mo.)
  • Use many sounds, gestures, facial expressions to communicate what they want.
  • Imitates others’ speech sounds, facial expressions.
  • Responds to simple commands.

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

7 9 months12
7-9 Months

Social-Emotional

  • Smiles and responds to own face in mirror.
  • Plays peek-a-boo.
  • Exchanges smiles, gestures, and sounds back & forth.
  • Pushes away unwanted things.
  • Can distinguish between familiar person & stranger.
  • Fears strangers, sudden, unexpected, looming objects (7-12 mo.)
  • Separation anxiety; concerned or cries when mom/dad leaves.

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

slide13

10-12 Months

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

10 12 months
10-12 Months

Gross Motor

  • Crawl to get something they want, grab it, or push away barrier to it.
  • Stands alone.
  • Walks around playpen or furniture while holding on (cruising).
  • Takes first steps with encouragement. Holds arms up for balance. Some may be walking well. Some may prefer crawling still.
  • Throws objects to practice “ungrasping”.

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

10 12 months15
10-12 Months

Fine Motor

  • Finger feeds self.
  • Picks up spoon by handle.
  • Can do simple things with a spoon such as bang or dip repeatedly.
  • Tries to imitate scribbling.
  • Picks up 2 small objects in one hand.
  • Moves thumbs and fingers into positions appropriate to size of object trying to grasp.
  • Turns pages of books a few at a time.

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

by about 12 months
By about 12 Months

Cognition

  • Follows a fast moving object.
  • Convergence of vision results in simple depth perception.
  • Starts being able to look for object moved to another place than they first found it.
  • Means-end behavior: crawls or walks to get what they want, pulls string toys.
  • Demonstrates use of objects without knowing their names.
  • Pretending begins.
  • Uses trial & error to solve problems (starts using thought).

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

10 12 months17
10-12 Months

Language

  • Associates names with objects.
  • Says first word, usually label for something.
  • Turns to person speaking when his/her name is called.
  • Tries to imitate animal sounds.
  • Associates meaning to some words. Understanding several words of speech and some common phrases.
  • Communicative functions: requests & commands.
  • Understands simple instructions and ‘no-no’.
  • Turns pages of book and can point to some objects.

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

10 12 months18
10-12 Months

Social-Emotional

  • Intensely preoccupied with primary caregiver (9-12 mo.)
  • Fear of strangers, sudden, looming objects continues.
  • May act subdued in new situations.
  • Shows some cooperation & help when being dressed.
  • Experience & interpret emotions at the same time.
  • May develop attachment to a toy or object.
  • Demonstrates affection. Waves ‘bye-bye’.

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

10 12 months19
10-12 Months

Social-Emotional

  • Imitates people in play.
  • Plays peek-a-boo, patty cake, other social games.
  • Uses a few gestures one after another to get needs met (giving, showing, reaching, pointing).
  • Communicates emotions more clearly – showing moods, ambivalence, levels of feeling.
    • Shouts for attention. Shows pleasure in achievement.
  • Give & take play; social referencing.

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

by 12 months
By 12 Months

Physical Body

  • Has tripled birthweight
  • 50% greater birth length
  • 6-8 teeth
  • Anterior fontanel (front soft spot on head) is nearly closed
  • Babinski reflex (foot fanning out) is gone

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

slide21

13-15 Months

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

13 15 months
13-15 Months

Gross Motor

  • Walks alone; some may be uneasy and few steps, others more stable; learning to walk backwards and sideways.
  • Claps hands.
  • Climbs on chairs or other furniture.
  • Pushes objects and pulls string toy.
  • Throws ball or object.
  • Carries toys while walking.
  • Crawls upstairs, maybe with support.

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

13 15 months23
13-15 Months

Cognition

  • Perceives causality and more complex circum-stances involving a chain of several events (starts about 10 mo.)
  • Begins to appreciate causal relations external to themselves.
  • Deliberate variation of problem-solving means; experiments to see what the consequences will be.
  • Very curious.

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

13 15 months24
13-15 Months

Cognition (cont’d)

  • Attends to a book or toy for about 2 minutes.
  • May engage in symbolic imitative play (pretend play but initiated and guided by another child/adult).
  • Purposeful exploration of toys through trial & error; uses a variety of motor skills.
  • Hands toy to adult if unable to operate.

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

13 15 months25
13-15 Months

Language

  • Understands symbolic function of naming.
  • Uses more elaborate and symbolic gestures.
  • Points to objects, pictures, & family (12-17 mo.).
  • Answers simple questions nonverbally (12-17 mo.)
  • Hands object to you when asked.
  • May overextend word meanings (all older adults are grandpa).
  • Exhibits communicative functions: request, command, personal protesting, labeling, response, and greeting.

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

by about 15 months
By about 15 Months

Language

  • Follows simple 1 or 2 step directions without gestures.
  • Uses and understands at least 3 words such as mama, bottle, bye-bye.
  • Says 2-3 simple words to name a person or object.
  • Context dependent single words - uses or labels only in certain situations but not others; word seems to come & go in vocabulary.
  • Points accurately to 1 or 2 body parts, clothing items.
  • Imitates adult speech.

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

13 15 months27
13-15 Months

Social-Emotional

  • Uses objects to play similar to adults using them.
  • Plays alone on floor with toys.
  • Possessive with toys, people, objects.
  • Approaches other children, imitates.
  • Wants stuffed animal, doll, or blanket in bed.
  • Enjoys being held and read to.
  • Needs and expects routines.

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

13 15 months28
13-15 Months

Social-Emotional

  • Exchanges many back & forth smiles, gestures, sounds in a row. Gives kisses.
  • Uses sounds, pointing or showing gestures to draw attention to something of interest, or to get needs met.
  • Explores environment using people most attached to as a secure base. Prefers some people over others.
  • Fears may include: dark, high places, pain, animals, strange persons, places, objects.
  • May become angry when told “No”.

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

slide29

16-18 Months

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

16 18 months
16-18 Months

Gross Motor

  • Creeps or crawls up 4 stairs without help; then step up/down stairs with assistance.
  • Walks alone; decreases using arms for balance; walks backwards.
  • Pulls toys behind while walking.
  • Attempts to kick a ball by walking into it, then using foot to kick forward.
  • Throws ball in intended direction.
  • Trots or walks fast; begins to run stiffly.

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

16 18 months31
16-18 Months

Fine Motor

  • Scoops food, feeds self with spoon with minimal spilling.
  • Takes off some articles of clothing with help.
  • Places 3 pegs in pegboard; towers 3-4 blocks.
  • Scribbles spontaneously; imitates crayon stroke.
  • Cooperates in handwashing.
  • Learning to brush teeth with help.
  • Turns single pages.

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

16 18 months32
16-18 Months

Cognition

  • Identifies shoe, clothing, object, body part.
  • Starting to sort toys by categories.
  • Continuing to experiment with problem-solving and consequences.
  • Demonstrates functional use of objects toward objects.
  • Likes to take things apart.
  • Autosymbolic play – pretends to go to sleep or eat.

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

16 18 months33
16-18 Months

Cognition

  • Uses most common objects and toys appropriately.
  • Tool use emerging
  • May find hidden toys (in a box or under cloth).
  • Begins symbolic representation: images & words come to stand for familiar objects; new means of problem solving through symbolic combinations.

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

16 18 months34
16-18 Months

Language

  • Responds to requests for play actions (push car, kiss doll)
  • Follows directions with 1, 2, maybe 3 steps.
  • Asks for ‘more’; says all gone, oh-oh, hi, bye
  • Says several single words; may connect 2 words.
  • Vocabulary spurt: comprehends/says 5-15 words, expands to about 20, then 50+.
  • Understands a lot more than can say.

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

16 18 months35
16-18 Months

Language

  • Uses at least 4 different consonants in babbling words.
  • Uses lots of gestures with words to get needs met.
  • Names object.
  • Repeats words overheard in conversation.
  • Beginning true verbal communication: words follow functional and semantic relations.

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

16 18 months36
16-18 Months

Social-Emotional

  • Enjoys playing with other children.
  • Imitates other children at play.
  • Initiates social contacts with peer in play.
  • Greets people with ‘hi’.
  • Imitates housework.
  • Shows preferences.
  • Shows signs of empathy.
  • Wish for independence is strong.

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

safety
Safety
  • Greater movement, exploration
  • Child-proofing
  • Blocking areas – stairs, outside
  • Car restraints
  • Poisons
  • Water
  • Constant monitoring

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

routines
Routines
  • Toddlers thrive on regularity. Major changes to routine are challenging.
  • Need regular nap, bed, bath, snack, and meal times.

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

wrap up
Wrap-up
  • Questions
  • Discussion
  • In-service evaluation
  • Follow-up
  • Next Session covers 18-36 months: November 18

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson

references
References
  • In addition to the provided resource materials listed on the in-service agenda, various textbooks and other reference materials used for this presentation are available upon request.

11.13.2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 3, D. Richardson