The Emerging Self. First 6 months: Discover physical self Joint attention – 9 months Difference in perceptions can be shared Self-recognition – 18 months Categorical self (age, sex) - 18 – 24 months Based on cognitive development Requires social experience
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Infants and children display a wide range of facial expressions associated with specific emotions. Can you identify each emotion the children in the photographs are expressing?
Adolescent depression and maternal rejection: The incidence of clinical depression in a group of adolescents who experienced low versus high degrees of maternal rejection as a function of which combination of alleles they possessed for a gene that influenced dopamine transport. As you can see, only adolescents who possessed one combination of alleles (TT) experienced significantly greater levels of clinical depression as a result of high level of maternal rejection (from Haeffel et al., 2008).
Children’s stress hormones as a function of maternal depression and medical risk. Cortisol levels at 18 months of age as a function of early medical risk and maternal depression. Only high-risk toddlers of depressed mothers had elevated levels of cortisol (adapted from Bugental et al., 2006).
Kohlberg: self socialization
Gender identity: ages 2-3
Label themselves correctly
Gender stability: ages 3-4
Stable over time
Gender consistency: ages 5-7
Stable across situations
Gender roles over the life-span
At marriage: greater differentiation
Birth of child: it increases more
Middle age and older: Androgyny
Shift - does not mean switch
Females > males: object & location memory
A model of phase changes in the rigidity of children’s gender stereotypes as a function of age. As children first learn about gender characteristics as preschoolers they become increasingly rigid in their stereotypes, with rigidity peaking as their gender knowledge becomes consolidated between 5 and 7 years old. Children become less rigid in their stereotypes until adolescence, when they increase again (not shown in figure) (from Martin & Ruble, 2004)
A classification of children’s sex-related behaviors. (Adapted from the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory [Friedrich et al., 1991] and Kaeser, DiSalvio & Moglia’s )
Exhibition and Voyeur Behaviors
- Sexually implicit: for example, “Playing doctor-games”
Impress females via competitive risk taking