Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
In Illinois, it’s the law to… • promote equitable access to language support services for students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds who have been identified as English Language Learners. • assist English Language Learners to become lifelong learners, able to contribute to and function in a multicultural and globally competitive world.
There are five levels of English language proficiency according to ISBE 5 Level 5: Students are able to work independently in content area using English language. BRIDGING 4 EXPANDING 3 DEVELOPING 2 BEGINNING 1 All Illinois teachers are responsible for moving kids to level 4.5 min.; teachers MUST make lessons comprehensible for English language learners. ENTERING A human screener tentatively determines these levels; the ISBE ACCESS test sets the level more precisely.
Illinois English Language Proficiency Standards Standard 1:English language learners communicate in English for social and instructional purposes within the school setting. Standard 2:….LANGUAGE ARTS Standard 3: ….MATHEMATICS Standard 4:English language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of SCIENCE Standard 5:….SOCIAL STUDIES
Proficiency Indicators Exemplars of what English language learners can do Sample behaviors representative of the five English language proficiency levels Developmental and additive; that is, they scaffold from lower to higher levels of language proficiency
The Cummins Model of ELL • BICS: Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (the tip of the iceberg: grammar, pronunciation, vocabulary) • CALP: Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (submerged part of iceberg: semantic meaning) • The distinction between BICS and CALP has exerted a significant impact on a variety of educational policies and practices in the USA in recent years.
6 months to 2 years 5 to 7 years
Cristina Cristina L1 CALP ELL with formal academic education in L1 (literacy) and no social language in L2
Maria Maria L1 ELL with no formal academic education in L1 (literacy) and no social language in L2
Pablo L2 L1 ELL with inconsistent academic education in either L1 or L2 (stunted literacy)
MariaElena L2 L1 ELL with stunted development in social language in both L1 and L2 and little to no CALP development
Academic Language Proficiency is: associated with language acquisition that, in large part, is tied to formal schooling representative of social and academic contexts driven by the language of content-based curriculum and instruction grounded in a blending of language proficiency and academic content standards
Language Proficiency is Related to but Distinct from Academic Achievement Language proficiency revolves around the language within the context of the core curriculum areas. Academic achievementreflects the knowledge and skills associated with the content of the core curriculum areas.
Academic Language Proficiency is required for Academic Achievement Social Language Proficiency Academic Achievement Academic Language Proficiency
Working with ELL Students • Language domains • Language patterns • Multiple meanings • Teaching strategies • Lesson cycles • Cooperative learning
There are four language domains Listening-process, understand, interpret, and evaluate spoken language in a variety of situations (receptive) Speaking-engage in oral communication in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes and audiences (productive) Reading-process, interpret, and evaluate written language, symbols, and text with understanding and fluency (receptive) Writing-engage in written communication in a variety of forms for a variety of purposes and audiences (productive)
Imagine you are a first grader. What are some language patterns you need to use or recognize in order to solve this problem? Language Patterns = + For example a teacher might say, “Count the boxes.”
Did you think of any other math sentences? How many altogether? How many in all? How much is 3 and 2? What is the sum of….? What is 2 plus 3? Add the two numbers. Three squares and two more are…. Three plus two equals…. Which of these are BICS; which of these are CALP?
Multiple Meanings in English Think about the word “table;” how might one use this word in the context of: English language arts? Mathematics? Science? Social Studies? Think about the word “cell;” how might one use this world in the context of: English language arts? Mathematics? Science? Social Studies?
Range of Contextual Support and Degree of Cognitive Involvement in Communicative Activities Cognitively undemanding Total physical response; Demonstrations, illustrations Following directions Art, music, physical education Face-to-face conversation Simple games Telephone conversation Note on a refrigerator Written directions (without diagrams or examples) Context embedded Context reduced A C (less language dependent) (more language dependent) B D Subject content explanation (Without diagrams or examples) Mathematics word problems. (Without illustrations) Explanations of new abstract concepts Mathematics computations Science experiments, social studies projects (map activities, etc.) • Adapted from J. Cummins, “The Role of Primary Language Development in Promoting Educational Success for Language Minority Students.” Schooling and Language Minority Students: A Theoretical Framework. Los Angeles: California State University.
Cooperative Learning • Mix ELL students with native speakers of English • Pair bilingual students with monolingual students, but require primarily English language usage • Be certain cooperative efforts are concrete at the start so that language, experiences, and concepts can be linked • Ensure full engagement of ELL students
Other Suggestions • Reading • Writing • Think-Pair-Share • Reciprocal teaching • Engaged Learning • Graphic organizers - semantic maps - using one of the following: Inspiration/Kidspiration/CMapTools
CLOSED WORD SORTS Directions: 1. Choose 10-12 important words from the selection. 2. Have the students work in pairs or small groups. 3. List the categories for the students. 4. Have the students discuss the words and place them under the categories. (The words and categories could be written on slips of paper so that they could be moved around.) 5. Be sure that the students discuss their reasons for the categorizing with each other and with another group. 6. Have the entire class discuss the categories. 7. Have the students read the selection. 8. Have the students revise their categories and express their learning through a graphic organizer, a story retelling, or role playing. Directions for the students: Below is a list of words from the unit that we have been studying. Place each word under the proper category and be ready to justify your choices. Average Velocity Instantaneous velocity Distance Speed Displacement Position Acceleration Time Categories: Scalar Vector Adapted from Content Area Reading by Richard T. Vaccar Illinois Resource Center, 1855 Mount Prospect Road, Des Plaines, IL 60018 (708) 803-3112
OPEN WORD SORTS(a.ka. concept or semantic maps) Directions: 1. Choose 10-12 important words from the selection, say “Energy.” 2. Have the students work in pairs or small groups. 3. Have the students discuss the words and then categorize them. (The students will develop their own categories.) 4. Be sure that the students discuss their reasons for the categorizing with each other and with another group. 5. Have the entire class discuss the categories. 6. Have the students read the selection. 7. Have the students revise their categories and express their learning through a graphic organizer, a story retelling, or role playing. Words: mass spring velocity equilibrium position PE height KE conservation g gravity distance acceleration k displacement work energy Adapted from Content Area Reading by Richard T. Vaccar____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Illlinois Resource Center, 1855 Mt. Prospect Rd., Des Plaines, IL 60018 (708) 803-3112
In the End • Just like working with students with disabilities, working with English Language Learners constitutes nothing more than best practice. • All students benefit from ELL accommodations.