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SPSS Session 2: Hypothesis Testing and p -Values. Learning Objectives. Review Lectures 8 and 9 Understand and develop research hypotheses and know difference between them and the null hypothesis Define independent and dependent variables for a research hypothesis

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learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Review Lectures 8 and 9
  • Understand and develop research hypotheses and know difference between them and the null hypothesis
  • Define independent and dependent variables for a research hypothesis
  • Define probability and describe it’s relationship to statistical significance
review of lecture 8
Review of Lecture 8
  • Defined and discussed the theory and rules of probability
  • Calculated probability and created a probability distribution with example data
  • Described the characteristics of a normal curve and interpreted a normal curve using example data
review from lecture 9
Review from Lecture 9
  • Defined research hypothesis, null hypothesis and statistically significance
  • Discussed the basic requirements for testing the difference between two means
  • Defined and described the difference between the alpha value and P value, and Type I and Type II errors
research hypotheses
Research Hypotheses
  • Hypotheses give a testable and potentially falsifiable prediction about the relationship between two variables.
  • Designed to answer a research question of particular interest.
  • For example, in our child protection study, parent or carer stress was predicted to be significantly associated with the quality of the family environment. This was a central hypothesis.
  • Our research question was: Is parent or carer stress associated with the quality of the family environment?
research and null hypotheses
Research and Null Hypotheses
  • RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
    • A proposed explanation for a phenomenon that can be tested
    • There is a relationship between two measured variables
    • A particular intervention makes a difference/has an effect

NULL HYPOTHESIS

  • The opposite position of the hypothesis (usually)
  • There is no relationship between two measured variables
  • The particular intervention does not make a difference/has no effect
research and null hypotheses examples
Research and NullHypotheses Examples

RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

  • Symbolized as “H1”
  • Parent or carer stress will be significantly associated with the quality of the family environment.

NULL HYPOTHESIS

  • Symbolized as “H0”
  • Parent or carer stress will not be significantly associated with the quality of the family environment.
alternative hypotheses
Alternative Hypotheses
  • Alternative or rival hypotheses may offer another explain on why two variables may or may not be associated
  • Alternative hypotheses are based on the information that you may not have collected or didn’t consider for every possible variable
  • Other variables can:
    • Be the actual cause
    • Alter the relationship between the two variables
  • It is important to read prior research literature before doing your research and data collection
independent and dependent variables
Independent and Dependent Variables
  • Independent variables (IV) those variables of interest which are used to predict dependent variables (DV)
    • Independent variables are also called “Predictors”.
    • Dependent variables are also called “Outcomes”.
  • That is IV explain variation in DV.
  • For example, parent or carer stress (IV) was predicted to be significantly associated with the quality of the family environment (DV).
probability
Probability
  • Research and quantitative tests produce results in probabilistic
  • Probability that the association found between an IV and DV occurred due to chance
  • Can also be said that the association between the IV and DV was statistically significant, and therefore not due to chance
statistical significance
Statistical Significance
  • In order to determine if something is statistically significant, you must establish a level of significance (represented by the Greek letter α [alpha]).
  • α = the level of probability where the null hypothesis can be rejected with confidence and the research hypothesis accepted with confidence
  • A common level of significance α = .05
statistical significance1
Statistical Significance
  • In statistical analyses, we find the p-value of the association between two variables (IV and DV).
  • If the p-value is less than our α = .05 level of significance, when we reject our null hypothesisand accept our research hypothesis.
  • If the p-value is greater than our α = .05 level of significance, when we say that we retain or fail to reject our null hypothesis.