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Breads. Ch. 22. Workbook P. 113. Please use workbook p. 113 to take notes during the presentation. Categories of Breads. Quick Breads. Yeast Breads. Prepare in a short amount of time Biscuits Muffins Popovers Cream puffs Pancakes Waffles Coffee cakes. Require more time to prepare

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Ch. 22

workbook p 113

Workbook P. 113

Please use workbook p. 113 to take notes during the presentation

categories of breads
Categories of Breads

Quick Breads

Yeast Breads

  • Prepare in a short amount of time
    • Biscuits
    • Muffins
    • Popovers
    • Cream puffs
    • Pancakes
    • Waffles
    • Coffee cakes
  • Require more time to prepare
    • Breads
    • Rolls
    • English muffins
    • Raised doughnuts
    • crullers
selecting and storing baked products
Selecting and Storing Baked Products
  • Quick breads and yeast breads are baked products
  • Freshly Baked – ready to eat
    • sold in bakeries, in bakery sections of supermarkets, and on supermarket shelves
  • Brown-and-Serve – partially baked, need a final browning in the oven
    • sold in bakery sections of supermarkets
selecting and storing baked products1
Selecting and Storing Baked Products
  • Refrigerated dough – ready to bake
    • found in refrigerated sections of supermarkets
  • Frozen dough – require thawing, proofing, and/or baking
    • Found in freezer section of supermarkets
cost of baked products
Cost of Baked Products
  • Cost of baked products depends on the amount of convenience
    • Ready-to-serve costs more than frozen
  • Bread costs depend on size, extra ingredients, and brand
storing baked products
Storing Baked Products
  • Store freshly baked items at room temperature or in freezer tightly wrapped
  • Freezing bread in hot humid weather prevents mold growth
    • Remove slices from freezer as needed, thaw and eat
  • Refrigerate products with cream, custard, or other perishable fillings
  • Keep refrigerated doughs refrigerated or frozen doughs frozen until you plan to bake them
quick breads
Quick Breads



  • Range in consistency
  • Pour batters – large amount of liquid and small amount of flour
    • Pancakes & popovers
  • Drop Batters – high proportion of flour and low proportion of liquid
    • Biscuits & muffins
  • Large amount of flour and small amount of liquid
  • Can be shaped by hand
    • Shortcake & rolled biscuits
  • Gives structure to baked products
  • White wheat most often used in baking
  • All-purpose flour used in most recipes
  • Self-rising flour – all purpose flour with added leavening agents and salt
leavening agents
Leavening Agents
  • Ingredients that produce gases in batters and doughs
  • Make baked products rise and become light and porous
  • Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) – an alkaline ingredient
    • Used in recipes that contain acidic ingredients
    • Acids balance the alkali preventing bitter taste
      • Buttermilk, molasses, brown sugar, vinegar, honey, apple sauce and other fruit, and citrus juices
leavening agents1
Leavening Agents
  • Baking Powder – contain dry acid, baking soda, and starch or flour
    • Using too much will cause too much carbon dioxide and your baked goods will collapse and become small and compact
  • Steam – produced when liquid ingredients reach high temperatures during baking
  • Air – incorporated into baked goods by beating eggs, creaming fat and sugar, and beating batters
    • All baked products contain some air
  • Water, milk, fruit juices, eggs, and fats
  • Hydrate protein and starch in flour
    • Proteins must absorb water to form gluten
    • Starch must absorb water to gelatinize during baking
  • Moisten or dissolve ingredients
    • Baking powder, salt, and sugar
  • Leaven baked goods when converted to steam
  • Tenderize baked products
    • Fat coats the flour particles and causes the dough structure to separate into layers
  • Aids in leavening
    • When beaten air bubbles form and the fat traps the air bubbles and hold them
  • Incorporates air into baked products
  • Adds color and Flavor
  • Contributes to structure
    • During baking, the egg proteins coagulate
    • The coagulated proteins gives the batter or dough elasticity and structure
  • Adds sweetness to baked products
  • Tenderizes crusts
  • Aids in browning
  • In yeast breads, sugar serves as food for yeast
  • Brown sugar produces baked goods that are moister than products made with granulated sugar
  • Adds flavor to baked products
  • In yeast breads, it regulates the action of the yeast and inhibits the action of certain enzymes
    • If yeast breads contain no salt they will produce carbon dioxide too quickly and be difficult to handle and have a poor appearance.
adjusting ingredients
Adjusting Ingredients
  • Baking powder, fat, eggs, sugar, and salt each perform certain functions in baked goods
  • Some recipes call for more of these ingredients than necessary
  • Cutting down on unneeded ingredients will result in breads that are lower in calories, fat, and sodium
workbook p 114

Workbook P. 114

Please take a moment to complete workbook p. 114. The chart on p. 390 will help you.

workbook p 115

Workbook p. 115

Please use workbook p. 115 to take notes during the presentation

food science principles
Food Science Principles
  • Gluten – a protein that gives strength and elasticity to batters and doughs and structure to baked products
    • It holds leavening gases which make quick breads rise
  • Gluten is created from gliadin and glutenin
    • When you combine wheat flour with a liquid and stir or knead it, the gliadin and glutenin combine to form gluten
  • When you first start to chew bubble gum, it is soft and easy to chew
  • As you chew the gum, it becomes more elastic, and you can blow bubbles
  • As you continue to chew for a long time, it becomes so elastic it makes your jaw hurt
  • Gluten behaves in a similar way
    • If you mix or handle a batter or dough too much, the gluten will over develop and the bread will be compact and tough
    • To keep quick bread light and tender, mix only a short period of time
types of flour
Types of Flour
  • Different types of white wheat flour contain different amounts of gliadin and glutenin
    • The strength of the gluten produced by each flour differs
  • In baking, you must use they type of flour listed or the texture will come out wrong
    • Ex. Yeast breads have a strong gluten structure, cakes have a delicate gluten structure and quick breads fall in between
food science at work
Food Science at Work
  • Chemical reactions in quick breads produce leavening gases
  • Baking soda is an alkali, when combined with an acid, it releases carbon dioxide
    • Acids help neutralize the batter, which would otherwise have a bitter taste and off color
  • Baking Powders are often double-acting
    • They release some carbon dioxide when they are moistened, then release most of their carbon dioxide when they are heated
preparing biscuits
Preparing Biscuits
  • Biscuit Method
    • Involves sifting dry ingredients together in a mixing bowl
    • Use a pastry blender or knives to cut fat into the dry ingredients
    • Continue cutting until the particles are the size of coarse cornmeal
    • Add liquid all at once, and stir until dough forms a ball
preparing biscuits1
Preparing Biscuits
  • Dry ingredients
    • Flour, baking powder, and salt
      • May use self-rising flour, which is a combo of all three
  • Liquid ingredients
    • Milk to buttermilk
  • Drop Biscuits – drop from a spoon onto a greased cookie sheet
    • Contain higher proportion of liquid
  • Rolled biscuits – knead the dough, roll into a circle and cut dough with a biscuit cutter and bake on an ungreased baking sheet.
characteristics of rolled biscuits
Characteristics of Rolled Biscuits
  • Have an even shape with a smooth, level top and straight sides
  • Crust is an even brown
  • When broken open the crumb is white
  • Moist and fluffy, peels into layers
  • Under mixed – low volume and rounded top (rough)
  • Over mixed – low volume and rounded top (smooth)
preparing muffins
Preparing Muffins
  • Muffin Method
    • Measure dry ingredients into a mixing bowl
    • Make a well in the center of the dry ingredients
    • In a separate bowl, combine beaten eggs with milk and oil or melted fat
    • Pour all the liquids into the well of dry ingredients
    • Stir the batter until just moistened
preparing muffins1
Preparing Muffins
  • Dry ingredients
    • Flour, baking powder, salt, and sugar
      • Fruits, nuts, cheese, and other ingredients may be added
  • Liquid ingredients
    • Milk or water, eggs, and fat
  • After combining ingredients, drop muffin batter into a greased muffin pan and bake
characteristics of muffins
Characteristics of Muffins
  • Thin, evenly brown crust
  • Top is symmetrical, but looks rough
  • When broken apart, texture is uniform
  • Crumb is tender and light
  • Under mixed – low volume, coarse crumb, and flat top
  • Over mixed – peaked top, pale slick crust, and when broken apart, narrow tunnels are visible
preparing popovers
Preparing Popovers
  • Use the muffin method when preparing popovers
  • Place in a hot oven for the first part of baking
    • Allows steam to expand walls of the popover
  • Lower oven temperature to prevent over browning
  • DO NOT open door to check popovers
    • This will cause popovers to collapse
characteristics of popovers
Characteristics of Popovers
  • Good volume
  • Shell is golden brown and crisp
  • Interior contains slightly moist strands of dough
  • Under baked – collapses when removed from oven, exterior is soft, interior will be doughy
  • Over baked – over browned exterior, dry interior
preparing cream puffs
Preparing Cream Puffs
  • Cream Puff Method
    • Bring water and fat to a boil
    • Add flour and stir vigorously over low heat until the mixture forms a ball
    • Remove mixture from heat, stir in eggs until mixture is smooth
  • This mixture is called puff paste
preparing cream puffs1
Preparing Cream Puffs
  • Drop puff paste onto an ungreased baking sheet
  • Bake in a hot oven to rise, then lower temperature to prevent overbrowning
  • DO NOT open door to check cream puffs
    • This will cause the steam to condense and the cream puffs will collapse
characteristics of cream puffs
Characteristics of Cream Puffs
  • Good volume
  • Brown, tender crust
  • Interior should be hollow
  • Under baked - collapses when removed from oven, exterior is soft, interior will be doughy
  • Evaporation of too much liquid will cause cream puffs to ooze fat
storing quick breads
Storing Quick Breads
  • Store freshly baked items at room temperature or in freezer tightly wrapped
workbook p 116

Workbook p. 116

Please use workbook p. 116 to take notes during the presentation

  • All purpose flour can be used for most yeast breads
  • Bread flour contains larger amounts of gliadin and glutenin making it ideal for bread machines
    • This is ideal because the action of the bread machine requires stronger gluten.
  • Whole wheat, rye, corn, soy, and oat flours have lower protein content than all purpose
    • This creates loaves that are denser or more compact
    • These flours are generally used in combination with all purpose flour to create lighter loaves
  • Plain water, potato water, milk, buttermilk, fruit juices, applesauce, and cottage cheese
  • Milk produces a softer crust and helps breads stay fresh longer than water
  • Temperature of liquids affect yeast cells.
    • Liquids too cold can stop yeast activity
    • Liquids too hot can kill yeast
    • 105°F - 115°F
  • Regulates the action of the yeast
  • Without salt, dough is sticky and hard to handle
    • When baked loaf will look moth-eaten
    • Omitting salt can cause the top of the loaf to collapse
  • A microscopic single-celled fungus that causes baked products to rise
  • Available in three forms
    • Compressed – made from fresh, moist cells that are pressed into cakes
    • Active Dry – made from an active yeast strain that has been dried and made into granules
    • Fast-rising – highly active yeast strains that have been dried and made into smaller granules that cause them to act more quickly.
  • Active dry & fast acting are both available in foil packets and glass jars
    • Should be stored in a cool dry place – refrigerate after opening
    • Buy in small quantities and use promptly – may be frozen
  • Using too much yeast will cause dough to rise too quickly
  • Excess yeast gives bread undesirable flavor, texture, and appearance
  • Types – granulated, brown sugar, honey, molasses
  • Influence browning, flavor, and texture
  • Provide extra food for the yeast
    • Too much sugar will cause dough to rise more slowly
  • Bread machines have special cycles for sweet breads
  • Increases the tenderness of yeast breads
  • Fat is optional in some traditional recipes (made by hand) but is required in bread machine recipes
  • Most use solid fat (lard, butter, margarine, shortening) but some call for oil
  • Add flavor and richness to breads
  • Add color and improve structure
  • Adding an egg to recipes that call for whole grain flour will improve structure and volume.
  • Eggs are considered a liquid ingredient in yeast breads
    • If you add an egg to the recipe decrease the liquids by ¼ cup
other ingredients
Other Ingredients
  • Added to yeast breads for flavor and variety.
  • Suggestions:
    • Raisins
    • Nuts
    • Cheese
    • Herbs
    • Spices