Enzymes
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Enzymes make it easier for the reaction to take place by lowering the activation energy Enzymes are not reactants and therefore are not used up in the reaction. Enzymes. Enzymes are Proteins - long chains of amino acids that have taken on a specific shape. They are catalysts

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Enzymes

Enzymes


Enzymes

  • Enzymes are Proteins - long chains of amino acids that have taken on a specific shape


Enzymes

  • They are catalysts

    • - They may be used to break apart substrates with the use of water (hydrolysis)

    • - They may be used to form new products plus water (condensation reactions)


Naming of enzymes

No need to write this down, just listen!

Naming of Enzymes

  • At first enzymes were given the suffix “–in” to name them (ex: Pepsin, Trypin)

  • Now they receive the suffix “-ase” (ex: lactase, sucrase, maltase)

  • Sugars and other molecules often end in “-ose” (ex: lactose, glucose, fructose…)

    EX: lactase breaks down lactose to make glucose and galactose


What are substrates
What are Substrates?

  • Substrates are smaller than enzymes

  • Substrates combine with enzymes to undergo reactions

  • Enzyme-substrate specificity – one key for each lock analogy

SUBSTRATE


Enzyme substrate complex
Enzyme-Substrate Complex

  • Substrates bind with enzymes at the active site

  • The shape of the enzyme determines the shape of the active site

    • Substrates with a different shape will not fit into the active site and the reaction will not take place


Effects of temperature
Effects of Temperature

  • optimum temperature – temp in which enzymes work best

  • Reactions are dependent on molecular collisions. Fluids with higher temperatures move faster and therefore more collisions take place.

  • BUT, at a certain temperature the enzyme loses its specific shape, this is Denaturation. Then the enzymes and substrates can no longer bond.


Effects of ph
Effects of pH

  • Each enzyme has an optimum pH

    • Pepsin works best at pH 2 in the stomach

    • Trypsin works best at pH 8 in the small intestine


Effects of substrate concentration
Effects of Substrate Concentration

  • The reaction goes faster if the substrate is more concentrated because there are more molecules to combine with but there is a limit called saturation.


Need to know example
Need to Know Example

  • Lactase: As you age, your ability to produce lactase decreases therefore you can no longer digest the lactose in dairy. These people are lactose intolerant.

  • To help people digest the lactose, companies will treat their products with lactase