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The 8 th President. Jackson decides not to run for a 3 rd term – Democrats nominate V.P. Martin Van Buren Whigs nominate 3 people – Van Buren easily wins . Panic of 1837. Pet Banks printing lots of paper $

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The 8 th president
The 8th President

  • Jackson decides not to run for a 3rd term – Democrats nominate V.P. Martin Van Buren

  • Whigs nominate 3 people – Van Buren easily wins

Panic of 1837
Panic of 1837

  • Pet Banks printing lots of paper $

    • If too many people “cashed in” their paper $ for gold/silver, bank couldn’t handle it

  • Jackson issued order that to buy public lands, you had to use gold or silver

  • People rushed the banks – many forced to either stop accepting paper $ or closed

  • Van Buren tries to help by cutting federal spending and setting up an independent treasury

The 9 th 10 th president
The 9th/10th President

  • 1840: Van Buren runs for reelection against Whig William H. Harrison

  • Harrison wins (first Whig win), but dies from pneumonia a month into his term

  • V.P. John Tyler becomes President

The reforming spirit
The Reforming Spirit

The men and women who led the reform movements of the 1800s wanted to extend the nation’s ideals of liberty and equality to all Americans.

They believed the nation should live up to the noble goals stated in the Declaration of Independence and Constitution.

The second great awakening
The Second Great Awakening

  • 1800 – 1830

  • You are responsible for your salvation – work to improve yourself and society

  • Revivals very popular – large gatherings (up to 20,000 people!) where preachers could spread their messages

    • Could last 4 to 5 days

    • Huge increase in church memberships


Transcendentalists stressed the relationship between humans and nature, as well as the importance of the individual conscience

  • Ralph Waldo Emerson

    • Urged people to break the bond of prejudice

  • Henry David Thoreau

    • Practiced “Civil Disobedience” by going to jail rather than pay a tax to support the Mexican War

The women s movement
The Women’s Movement

  • Cult of Domesticity: housework and child care had been considered to be only proper activities for married women

  • Many women believed they should have the same rights as men

Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Seneca falls convention 1848
Seneca Falls Convention (1848)

  • First women’s rights convention

  • 200 women and 40 men attended

  • Issued a Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions modeled after the Declaration of Independence

    “We hold these truths to be self evident: that all men AND women are created equal”

  • Called for an end to all laws that discriminated against women

  • Included a demand for women’s suffrage

Reforming education
Reforming Education

  • Before 1800s, no uniform policies

    • Classrooms not divided by grade

    • Few went to school beyond 10th birthday

  • 1830s: reformers pushed for tax funded public education

Horace Mann

"father of American public education"

Changes in education
Changes in Education

  • By 1850’s, most states accepted that:

    • School should be free and supported by taxes

    • Teachers should be trained

    • Students should be required to attend

  • Females received a limited education

    • Subjects like science, math and history were “men’s”subjects

The abolitionists
The Abolitionists

  • The issue of slavery became the most pressing social issue for reformers

  • Growing number of Americanshad begun to demand an immediate end to slavery in the South

  • Roughly 2 million blacks were slaves in 1830

    • Most lived on plantations with 10 or more slaves

    • Many did live on small farms working beside their owners

The underground railroad
The Underground Railroad

  • Many in the North were convinced of the evils of slavery

  • The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 required all citizens to help catch runaways

  • Abolitionists established a network of routes and risked their lives to help African Americans escape slavery

The changing workplace
The Changing Workplace

  • The Industrial Revolution shifted the production of goods from the home to the factory

  • Many, including women left farms for job opportunities in factories

  • Conditions for workers deteriorated during 1830s, strikes began to become more common

  • As immigration rates rose, so did racial prejudices