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Page 06. Objective 09/04/12. SWBAT Describe the difference between observation and inference from pictures and using their senses. . Jumpstart. What does the word “Observation” mean ? (in other words, what does it mean to make an observation?). Outro.

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slide1

Page 06

Objective 09/04/12

SWBAT Describe the difference between observation and inference from pictures and using their senses.

Jumpstart

What does the word “Observation” mean? (in other words, what does it mean to make an observation?)

Outro

Why is it important to strictly observe facts and not make assumptions when working in lab?

observation
Observation
  • What is an observation?
  • We observe things every day!
  • The “activity of receiving knowledge from the outside world through the senses.”
  • Using your 5 senses: hear, smell, sight, taste, and touch
observation1
Observation
  • Always a recording of FACTS
  • Observations can be repeated by others
    • For example: I can observe that this is a picture of Ms. D'Onofrio
    • You can observe the exact same thing!
inference
Inference
  • What is an Inference?
  • When you observe something, you usually infer about it, too!
  • A “logical interpretation based on prior knowledge or observations.”
  • Essentially, it’s an IDEA that you get from observing something
inference1
Inference
  • Inferences continued
  • A recording of IDEAS or OPINIONS, not facts.
  • Inferences are usually unique to each person!
    • For instance, I can say that this picture is beautiful…
    • But you may say that it’s REALLY beautiful!
observation and inference
Observation and Inference

Observations are how we collect data about the world around us. However, inferences are the ideas we create to interpret that data.

  • Example: you walk into a room, hit the light switch, but the room stays dark (that’s your observation) …what do you infer?
    • Light is burned out
    • Fuse is bad
    • Didn’t pay the power bill
    • Etc…
the power of observation
The Power of Observation

In Lab, it is extremely important that we make CLEAR, NEUTRAL observations. We will practice with making observations today, then try making some inferences tomorrow.

observation practice
Observation Practice
  • You will get one minute to look at and study the following picture. Then you will be asked questions about it. Make good observations!
  • Ready?
observations
Observations
  • What color is the pick-up truck?
  • How many cars are parked on the left side of the street?
  • What is the speed limit?
  • What did the turquoise sign say?
  • What type of vehicle is driving TOWARDS the camera?
  • What type of line is in the street?
  • How many yellow sticks are near the sidewalk?
slide12

What color is the pick-up truck?

  • How many cars are parked on the left side of the street?
  • What is the speed limit?
  • What did the turquoise sign say?
  • What type of vehicle is driving TOWARDS the camera?
  • What type of line is in the street?
  • How many yellow sticks are near the sidewalk?
observations1
Observations
  • Nice job! We just made some observations with our EYES, but is that the ONLY way to observe? Is it the most accurate? Can you believe EVERYTHING your eyes see? Let’s find out…
slide50

Page 06

Objective 09/04/12

SWBAT Describe the difference between observation and inference from pictures and using their senses.

Jumpstart

What does the word “Observation” mean? (in other words, what does it mean to make an observation?)

Outro

Why is it important to strictly observe facts and not make assumptions when working in lab?

slide51

Page 08

Objective 09/05/12

SW Learn how to think like a scientist by using observation and inferences and considering the idea of the scientific method.

Jumpstart

Do scientists follow steps when solving problems? Why or why not?

Outro

What is a “Hypothesis”?

inferences

Let’s put this into our

Table of Contents!

Inferences

Interactive Notebook Page 09

slide53

A: Observation

B: Inference

There is a representation of a face on one side of the coin.

The words printed on both sides of the coin are Latin

The date 1722 is printed on one side of the coin.

The coin was made by deeply religious people.

The Latin word “Dei” means “God”

The face on the coin is a representation of the nation’s president.

The coin was made in 1722.

slide54

INFERENCES

OBSERVATION

INFERENCE

1.

  • Set up your notebook like this….

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

observation inference review

{

Observation & Inference review

Observations Inferences

observation inference review1

{

Observation & Inference review

Observations Inferences

observation inference review2

{

Observation & Inference review

Observations Inferences

observation inference review3

{

Observation & Inference review

Observations Inferences

observation inference review4

{

Observation & Inference review

Observations Inferences

observation inference review5

{

Observation & Inference review

Observations Inferences

inferences1

Inferences

The Shapes

slide62

What are some observations you

can make about this picture?

Press

slide66

Page 08

Objective 09/05/12

SW Learn how to think like a scientist by using observation and inferences and considering the idea of the scientific method.

Jumpstart

Do scientists follow steps when solving problems? Why or why not?

Outro

What is a “Hypothesis”?

slide67

Page 10

Objective 09/06/12

SW become familiar with the idea of the scientific method and why variables are important through notes and activity.

Jumpstart

Why do you think it’s important to follow steps or procedures to find an answer to a question?

Outro

Explain why it’s necessary that more than one trial is performed during a lab.

scientific methods
Scientific Methods
  • When scientists observe the world, they often think of a question or a problem. However, guessing is not an option!
  • Scientists follow a series of steps called “Scientific Methods” in order to solve problems
scientific methods1
Scientific Methods
  • Scientific Methods:
  • Many steps
  • No set order or procedure
  • Can be repeated many times
  • Helps scientist come up with reliable answers and solutions
scientific methods2
Scientific Methods
  • When scientists observe the world, they ask questions about what they observe. Then they try to create an explanation for what they observed. This explanation is called a hypothesis.
  • A hypothesis can be tested over and over until a conclusion is drawn.
scientific methods3
Scientific Methods

Ask a Question

Make Observations

Form a Hypothesis

Analyze the Results

Test the Hypothesis

No

Draw Conclusions

Do they Support your Hypothesis?

Communicate Results

Yes

scientific methods4
Scientific Methods
  • Let’s try an example together…
    • You walk into a room, hit the light switch, and the room stays dark. That’s your observation. Now what?
scientific methods5
Scientific Methods
  • Make an Observation
  • Ask a Question
    • Infer (back-cast)
  • Form and Test a Hypothesis
  • Analyze the Results
  • Draw Conclusions
  • Communicate Results
  • Case Closed?
    • Predicting (fore-cast)
variables

Variables

Things that change the Experiment

variables1
Variables
  • What is a Variable?
  • Something that you can change in an experiment to get different results
variables2
Variables
  • There are two kinds of variables in science
  • Why would you need to change something in your experiment?
  • Independent variables are changed by YOU
  • Dependent variables change because of something you did
variables3
Variables
  • When conducting an experiment, in order to get valid results you need to test many different variables. For example…
    • You notice the light did not turn on when you entered the room. Some possible variables to test would be:
      • The bulb itself
      • The fuse
      • The switch
      • The power bill
variables4
Variables
  • In today’s lab, we will be attempting to see how many drops of water you can fit on a penny! What are some things that could affect the amount of drops you could get on the penny (i.e.: what are some variables we should test?)
slide80

Page 10

Objective 09/06/12

SW become familiar with the idea of the scientific method and why variables are important through notes and activity.

Jumpstart

Why do you think it’s important to follow steps or procedures to find an answer to a question?

Outro

Explain why it’s necessary that more than one trial is performed during a lab.

slide81

Page 12

Objective 09/07/12

SWBAT compare ancient measurements with accurate measurements using the metric system by accurately measuring the perimeter of the classroom in 10 minutes.

Jumpstart Write the questions, but don’t answer until we finish watching the videos!

Name at least two ways that ancient people measured distance.

Do you see any problems with their “systems?” If so, what could they be?

If you were living back then, how would you go about measuring the perimeter of this classroom?

Outro

List other techniques teachers have taught you about length and body parts?

jumpstart answers
Jumpstart Answers

Ancient Methods of Measurement

Pace = 2 steps; Mile = 1000 paces

Fathom = finger tip

Girth = distance round a man (3 feet)

Span = pinky to thumb

Ruler = fingertip to elbow (cubit)

Stadium = distance Hercules could cover while holding his breath, exactly 200 modern meters long

Foot = 1 foot

Hand = 1 hand

string challenge

Let’s put this into our

Table of Contents!

String challenge

Interactive Notebook Page 13

the history of measurement
The History of Measurement

Problems with their “systems”

  • Based on the length of a body part of the person measuring
    • Or the area that could be plowed in a day…
  • Feet around different civilizations varied: 10, 13, 17, 27 inches
    • Widths of thumb
    • Lengths of fingers
    • Average length of left foot of 16 men
  • The average foot length is about 9.4 inches… where are the extra inches??
measurement challenge
Measurement Challenge!

GOOD LUCK!!!

What length of floor molding would be needed to line the perimeter?

  • Grouping: Table partners
  • Rules:
    • You may not use any rulers, meter sticks or measuring tapes to help you find this distance, you may only use the yarn provided.
    • Work quickly and cooperatively together.
    • Record your final perimeter measurement on the board (including units).
discussion questions
Discussion Questions
  • What units of measurement did each group use?
    • Is any one unit “better” than another?
    • English System vs. Metric
  • What would have made this task easier?
  • How would you modify your technique if you were to perform the task again?

What techniques did you use to find the perimeter of the room?

Were each of the groups’ answers the same?

slide87

Page 12

Objective 09/07/12

SWBAT compare ancient measurements with accurate measurements using the metric system by accurately measuring the perimeter of the classroom in 10 minutes.

Jumpstart Write the questions, but don’t answer until we finish watching the videos!

Name at least two ways that ancient people measured distance.

Do you see any problems with their “systems?” If so, what could they be?

If you were living back then, how would you go about measuring the perimeter of this classroom?

Outro

List other techniques teachers have taught you about length and body parts?