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Biosecurity. “Protection from exposure to disease” What? Why? How?. Biosecurity. “A set of management practices which when followed correctly reduce the potential for the introduction and spread of disease causing organisms onto, and between sites.”

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biosecurity
Biosecurity
  • “Protection from exposure to disease”
  • What?
  • Why?
  • How?
biosecurity3
Biosecurity

“A set of management practices which when followed correctly reduce the potential for the introduction and spread of disease causing organisms onto, and between sites.”

  • From the perspective of the bird rather than just the farm
biosecurity4
Biosecurity

Three Key Levels of Biosecurity

  • Conceptual Biosecurity
  • Structural Biosecurity
  • Operational Biosecurity
biosecurity5
Biosecurity

Conceptual Biosecurity

Involves Site planning

Location e.g proximity to other farms, transport etc.

Almost impossible to change once committed without very high cost

biosecurity6
Biosecurity

Structural Biosecurity

Concerns the design of the farm and buildings.

Includes house design (easy to clean), site layout and security.

Expensive to change once built.

biosecurity7
Biosecurity

Operational Biosecurity

The points involved with day to day running of the site.

Includes routine disinfection, control of visitors, source of stock etc.

Can be modified at low cost according to requirements

disease transmission
Disease transmission

Different disease causing agents require differing priorities in relation to biosecurity

There is a direct relationship between where the agent multiplies in the bird and its mode of transmission from one bird to another, or from one site to another

disease transmission respiratory diseases
Disease transmission: Respiratory diseases

high concentrations in the respiratory tract

+++ mucus

sneezing and coughing

aerosols

e.g. ND, IB, AI, TRT, mycoplasma

disease transmission enteric gut diseases
Disease transmission: Enteric (gut) diseases

Diarrhoea

spread via droppings

e.g. salmonella, campylobacter, coccidiosis, viruses

disease transmission vertical transmission
Disease transmission: Vertical transmission

from breeders

infection via air sac or oviduct

egg contamination

egg transmission

e.g. mycoplasma, salmonella

disease transmission site contamination
Disease transmission: Site contamination

persistent, resistant organisms

contaminate litter, equipment, environment

e.g. ILT, Gumboro, Marek’s, CAV, many bacteria

breeder farm and hatchery
Breeder Farm and Hatchery

Breeding Stock

Breeding Farm

Egg collection

Farm egg storage

Egg Transport

The Hatchery

Chick delivery

biosecurity why
Biosecurity - why?

1. To keep lethal, highly contagious diseases out of premises e.g. Newcastle disease (Fowl Pest), avian influenza, or acute Gumboro disease

2. To reduce challenge by common pathogens known to reduce productivity such as E.coli and coccidiosis

biosecurity why15
Biosecurity - why?

3. To reduce or eliminate, background immunosuppressive agents such as Marek’s disease, chicken anaemia or Gumboro disease, which leave birds susceptible to other disease organisms

4. To reduce contamination with agents of public health significance, such as salmonella or campylobacter

methods of spread
Methods of spread

1. Vermin e.g. salmonella, pasteurella

2. Feed e.g. salmonella, some ND strains

3. Wild birds e.g. mycoplasmas, ND, avian influenza, ?IB, ?TRT, bacteria, worms

methods of spread17
Methods of spread

4. Water e.g. E. coli, salmonella, campylobacter

5. Hatchery e.g. salmonella, aspergillus, enterococcus, pseudomonas, mycoplasmas

6. Windborne e.g. IB, ND, TRT, ?mycoplasmas

7. Faecal e.g. Gumboro, ND, salmonella, mycoplasma, viruses

control areas inanimate
Control Areas - Inanimate

1. locate away from other poultry (>5 miles)

2. avoid waterways, ponds or lakes

3. avoid putting birds on range

4. avoid major roads

5. remove litter from farm

6. concrete around houses

7. avoid standing water

8. use potable drinking water with low TVC

control areas people
Control areas - People

limit staff movements

avoid visitors

control site traffic

spray vehicles

adequate protective clothing

BOOTS

hand washing

?showers

control areas poultry
Control areas - poultry

Obtain stock from high health status sources.

Carry out regular health monitoring and audits

Carry out daily and proper disposal of deaths / culls.

control areas site decontamination
Control areas - site decontamination

Effective cleaning and disinfection

adequate turnaround time

include houses, aprons, equipment

use a closed water system

carry out water sanitisation

control areas site decontamination22
Control areas - site decontamination

Use a total feed system

carry out regular vermin control

audit efficacy

use only products with proven broad spectrum efficacy

disease control
Disease Control

Freedom from Disease = Maximum Profits

Hygiene and Biosecurity =

The most cost effective method

of disease control

static vectors
STATIC VECTORS

Housing

Equipment

Organic Waste

Feed System

Water System

Building Surrounds

mobile vectors
MOBILE VECTORS

Livestock

Humans

Rodents

Other Animals

Equipment

Transport

Organic Waste

Air Borne

nutrient vectors
NUTRIENT VECTORS

Food

Water

(Bedding)

types of disinfection
TYPES OF DISINFECTION

Terminal

Continuous

(Production Breaks)

stage 1 removal dry clean
STAGE 1REMOVAL & DRY CLEAN

Remove stock

Equipment

Bedding

Gross organic waste

Dust

stage 2 cleaning sanitisation
STAGE 2CLEANING & SANITISATION

Reducing infective material

Removal of dried on matter

Use a Detergent / Sanitiser

Allow to dry afterwards

stage 3a water systems
STAGE 3AWATER SYSTEMS
  • Drainable
    • Drain
    • Clean
    • Disinfect
    • Flush
  • Non-Drainable
    • Clean
    • Sanitise
stage 3b removable equipment
STAGE 3BREMOVABLE EQUIPMENT

Soak

Scrub / Pressure Wash

Detergent Sanitizer

Disinfect

Dry

stage 4 disinfection
STAGE 4DISINFECTION

To remove residual challenge

Use broad spectrum disinfectant

Cover all surfaces

Cover all cracks & crevices

Allow to dry.

stage 5 aerial disinfection
STAGE 5AERIAL DISINFECTION

Covers inaccessible areas

Replace movable equipment first.

Can be done after bedding is spread.

Fog / Fumigate

Safety required with formaqldehyde.

Rest period

continuous disinfection
CONTINUOUS DISINFECTION

Control Access

Foot & Wheel Dips

Water Sanitization

Aerial Disinfection

Rodent Control

operational biosecurity
Operational Biosecurity

Control/restriction of Visitors

Strict use of Protective clothing

Hand Washing

Footdips etc

egg collection
Egg collection

Treat with Care at all stages

Hand washing

Egg sanitising

Disinfection and cleaning of egg store

egg transport
Egg Transport

Hatchery should dispatch a clean and disinfected vehicle

Driver to observe farm hygiene regulations

hatchery biosecurity
Hatchery Biosecurity

Staff training and supervision

Defined working areas – “Clean” and “Dirty”

Clearly defined routines and frequencies.

Hygiene of personnel

Site security

chick delivery
Chick Delivery
  • Chick box disinfection
  • Transport Hygiene
  • Farm Regulations
  • Disinfection of returning vehicle and crates
chick delivery40
Chick Delivery

Chick box disinfection

Transport Hygiene

Farm Regulations

Disinfection of returning vehicle and crates

conclusion
Conclusion

Consider the operation as a whole

Trained Operatives

Monitoring overall results

Routine Hatchery Monitoring

the result
The Result

Freedom from Disease = Maximum Profits