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The Master Budget and Responsibility Accounting. Chapter 22 . Why Managers Use Budgets. To plan and control actions and the related revenues and expenses To incorporate management’s strategic and operational plans Planning technology upgrades

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The Master Budget and Responsibility Accounting


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    Presentation Transcript
    why managers use budgets
    Why Managers Use Budgets
    • To plan and control actions and the related revenues and expenses
    • To incorporate management’s strategic and operational plans
      • Planning technology upgrades
      • Planning capital asset replacements, improvements, or expansions
    • Compare actual results with budgeted amounts to determine corrective actions(performance reporting)
    performance report
    Performance Report
    • Identifies areas where the actual results differed from the budget
    steps managers take to prepare a budget
    Steps Managers Take To Prepare A Budget
    • Master budget—the set of budgeted financial statements and supporting schedules for the entire organization
    • Budget includes three types of budgets:
      • The operating budget
        • Projects sales revenue, cost of goods sold, and operating expenses
      • The capital expenditures budget
        • The plan for purchasing property, plant, equipment, and other long-term assets
      • The financial budget
        • Plans for raising cash and paying debts
    • Contain projected amounts, not actual amounts
    master budget
    Master Budget

    (Merchandising Co.)

    master budget1
    Master Budget

    (Manufacturer)

    prepare an operating budget
    Prepare an operating budget
    • First three components
      • Sales budget
      • Inventory, purchases, and cost of goods sold budget
      • Operating expenses
    • Feed into the budgeted income statement
    sales budget
    Sales Budget
    • Cornerstone of master budget
      • Level of sales affect all other elements
    • Projected sales are calculated as:
      • Each product multiplied by expected units sold
    inventory purchases and cost of goods sold budget
    Inventory, Purchases, and Cost of Goods Sold Budget
    • Budget determines:
      • Cost of goods sold for the budgeted income statement
      • Ending inventory for the budgeted balance sheet
      • Purchases for the cash budget
    • Familiar equation is used
      • Beginning inventory + Purchases – Ending inventory = Cost of goods sold
    • Rearrange equation to solve for unknowns
      • Purchases = Cost of goods sold + Ending inventory – Beginning inventory
    inventory purchases and cost of goods sold budget1
    Inventory, Purchases, and Cost of Goods Sold Budget
    • 70% cost of goods sold figure uses sales budget created earlier
    • Desired ending inventory is derived from company policies
    • Desired ending inventory becomes beginning inventory for next period (month, quarter, or year)
    operating expense budget
    Operating Expense Budget
    • Prepared after sales budget and cost of goods sold budget
    • Shows estimated expenses for the period
    • Includes fixed and/or variable expenses
    • Examples:
      • Fixed and variable salaries, commissions
      • Rent
      • Insurance
      • Advertising
      • Miscellaneous
    • Look at prior income statements
    the budgeted income statement
    The Budgeted Income Statement
    • Prepared after sales budget, cost of goods sold budget and operating expense budget
    s22 3 preparing an operating budget
    S22-3: Preparing an operating budget
    • Grippers sells its rock-climbing shoes worldwide. Grippers expects to sell 8,500 pairs of shoes for $180 each in January, and 3,500 pairs of shoes for $190 each in February. All sales are cash only.
    • Prepare the sales budget for January and February.
    s22 4 preparing an operating budget
    S22-4: Preparing an operating budget
    • Review your results from S22-3. Grippers expects cost of goods sold to average 60% of sales revenue, and the company expects to sell 4,100 pairs of shoes in March for $260 each. Grippers’ target ending inventory is $10,000 plus 50% of the next month’s cost of goods sold.
    • Use this information and the sales budget prepared in S22-3 to prepare Grippers’ inventory, purchases, and cost of goods sold budget for January and February.
    financial budget
    Financial Budget
    • Cash budget
      • Project cash receipts and payments
    • Budgeted balance sheet
      • Project each asset, liability, and stockholders’ equity account
    • Budgeted statement of cash flows
      • Project cash flows from operating, investing, and financing activities
    cash budget
    Cash Budget
    • Statement of budgeted cash receipts and payments
    • Details how to go from the beginning cash balance to the desired ending balance
    • Four major parts:
      • Cash collections from customers
      • Cash payments for purchases
      • Cash payments for operating expenses
      • Cash payments for capital expenditures
    • Depends on operating budget
    budgeted cash collections from customers
    Budgeted Cash Collections from Customers
    • Cash collections from customers
      • Cash sales from the sales budget
      • Collections of prior month’s credit sales
    budgeted cash payments for purchases
    Budgeted Cash Payments for Purchases
    • Payments for operating expenses
      • Payments during the month of purchase—assume 50%
      • Payments following the month of purchase—assume 50%

    x 50%

    budgeted cash payments for operating expenses
    Budgeted Cash Payments for Operating Expenses
    • Use the operating expenses budget and payment information to compute cash payments for operating expenses
    • Payment of 50% of current month’s salary and commissions
    • Payment of 50% of prior months salary and commissions
    • Payment for rent and miscellaneous expenses in the same month

    Depreciation is a non-cash expense

    Insurance was prepaid in the prior quarter

    the cash budget
    The Cash Budget

    8. Greg’s plans to purchase a used delivery truck in April for $3,000 cash.

    9. Greg’s requires a minimum cash balance of $10,000 before financing at the end of each month.

    getting employees to accept the budget
    Getting Employees to Accept the Budget
    • Most important part of the budgeting system
      • Getting managers and employees to accept the budget
      • Managers must motivate employees to accept the budget’s goals
      • How?
        • Managers must support the budget themselves, or no one else will
        • Managers must show employees how budgets can help them achieve better results
        • Managers must have employees participate in developing the budget
    • Do not build in slack–becomes less accurate
    s22 5 preparing a financial budget
    S22-5: Preparing a financial budget

    Refer to the Grippers sales budget that you prepared in S22-3. Now assume that Grippers’ sales are collected as follows:

    November sales totaled $400,000 and December sales were $425,000.

    50% in the month of the sale

    30% in the month after the sale

    18% two months after the sale

    2% never collected

    Prepare a schedule for the budgeted cash collections for January and February. Round answers to the nearest dollar.

    s22 6 preparing a financial budget
    S22-6: Preparing a financial budget

    Refer to the Grippers inventory, purchases, and cost of goods sold budget your prepared in S22-4. Assume Grippers pays for inventory purchases 50% in the month of purchase and 50% in the month after purchase.

    Prepare a schedule for the budgeted cash payments for purchases for January and February.

    s22 7 preparing a financial budget
    S22-7: Preparing a financial budget

    Grippers has $12,500 in cash on hand on January 1. Refer to S22-5 and S22-6 for cash collections and cash payment information. Assume Grippers has cash payment for operating expenses including salaries of $50,000 plus 1% of sales, all paid in the month of sale. The company requires a minimum cash balance of $10,000.

    Prepare a cash budget for January and February. Will Grippers need to borrow cash by the end of February?

    using information technology for sensitivity analysis and rolling up unit budgets
    Using Information Technology for Sensitivity Analysis and Rolling Up Unit Budgets
    • Technology makes it more cost-effective for managers to:
      • Conduct sensitivity analysis on their own unit’s budget
      • Combine individual unit budgets to create the companywide master budget
    • Master budget models the company’s planned activities
    • Must support key strategies
    sensitivity analysis and rolling up unit budgets
    Sensitivity Analysis and Rolling Up Unit Budgets
    • Sensitivity analysis
      • What-if technique that determines the result if predicted amounts differ from those budgeted
    • Spreadsheet programs used for budgeting make sensitivity analysis cost-effective
      • What-if budget questions easily changed within Excel with a few keystrokes
      • Makes it cost-effective to perform more comprehensive sensitivity analyses
      • Managers react quickly if key assumptions underlying the master budget (such as sales price or quantity) turn out to be wrong
    rolling up individual budgets1
    Rolling Up Individual Budgets
    • Individual operating units roll up budgets to prepare company-wide budget
    • Budget management software is used
      • Often part of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system
    • Allows management to conduct sensitivity analysis on unit data
    • Managers can spend less time compiling and summarizing data and more time analyzing it
    s22 9 using sensitivity analysis in budgeting
    S22-9: Using sensitivity analysis in budgeting

    Maplehaven Sporting Goods Store has the following sales budget:

    Suppose June sales are expected to be $80,000 rather than $64,000.

    responsibility accounting
    Responsibility Accounting
    • A system for evaluating the performance of each responsibility center and its manager
      • A responsibility center is the part of the organization for which a particular manager is responsible
        • Is a part of the organization for which a manager has decision-making authority and accountability
    • Four types:
      • Cost center
      • Revenue center
      • Profit center
      • Investment center
    • Decentralization highlights the need for reports on individual segments
    responsibility centers
    Responsibility Centers

    Goal is to control cost

    Goal is to increase revenues

    Goal is to increase profits

    Goal is to increase ROI, EVA, & residual income

    responsibility accounting performance reports
    Responsibility Accounting Performance Reports
    • Performance reports compare budgeted and actual amounts
    • Reporting at all levels:
      • Division (investment centers)
      • Product lines (profit centers)
      • Production (cost centers)
      • Sales (revenue centers)
    • Management by exception
      • Shows variances between actual and budgeted amounts
    learn about service departments
    Learn about Service Departments
    • Departments that provide services to multiple departments or divisions for the company
      • Usually do not generate revenues
      • Similar to the shared production overhead
      • Nonproduction related service departments
    traceable fixed costs
    Traceable Fixed Costs
    • Costs directly associated with an individual product, division, or business segment
    • Would disappear if the company discontinued the product , division or segment
    • Assigning traceable fixed costs
      • Splitting the cost equally–not fair
      • Based on use of the services–fair
        • Small users charged less
        • Larger users charged more
      • Identify cost drivers (ABC costing) suitable for assigning traceable service department charges
    • Common service departments listed on next slide
    responsibility accounting reports
    Responsibility Accounting Reports
    • Show the results of the segment or division for which a particular manager is responsible