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Integrating Health into Planning and Community Design, Part II

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  1. Integrating Health into Planningand Community Design, Part II Building Healthier Communities Fundamentals and Strategies for Integrating Public Health into Community Design 4th Annual Partners for Smart Growth Conference January 27, 2005, Miami Beach

  2. A Convergence of Priorities Public Health Community Planning and Design Physically Active Communities

  3. 1850 - 1920s: The public health roots of planning 1920 – 1930s: Zoning and subdivision regulations emerge to deal with nuisance issues, property values, quality of life 1945 – present: Urban decentralization, vast changes in jobs/housing proximity, consumer preferences, wealth; (now) conventional development patterns become norm 1970 – 1985: State growth management movement 1990 – present: Major change in Federal transportation priorities ISTEA (1990); TEA-21 (1997); TEA 3 (2003 reauthorization) 1990 – present: Smart growth movement 1997 – present: Public health and planning renew their marriage vows Planning/Public Health Chronology(from a planner’s perspective)

  4. Barriers to Health and Physical Activity: Is Community Design Part of the Problem? • Separated land uses • Auto-dominated community design • Large lots • Impervious surfaces • Ignoring human scale • Prohibited connections between origins and destinations

  5. Public Health Profession Has Also Reached Some New Conclusions • Individual interventions have been only moderately successful • It’s time to turn attention to environmental factors • Development patterns have altered the balance of human behavior • The social costs of current development patterns are greater than traffic congestion • Conventional suburbia may be neither “safe” or “healthy”

  6. Level of Routine Physical Activity Built environment factors How, where, and to what extent we travel Social/cultural factors Psychological, cognitive & emotional factors Socio-demographic factors Attitudes / preferences

  7. Planning’s Degree of Influence on the Decision to Walk or Bike Family responsibility Work requirements Preferences Distance Time Initial considerations If feasible Trip barriers Weather Geography Route feasibility Route attractiveness Traffic safety If overcome Destination barriers Storage Showers Employer support If overcome Decision to walk/bike

  8. Dimensions of Community Design that Affect Physical Activity • Regional structure • Density and intensity • Land use mix • Street connectivity • Street scale • Aesthetic qualities

  9. APA’s Five Strategic Points of InterventionWhere Planners Can Promote Change 1. Visioning and goal setting 2. Rethinking planning in all contexts 3. Local implementation tools 4. Site Design and Development 5. Siting Public Facilities and Capital Spending

  10. 1. Visioning and Goal Setting • Begins with a discussion of shared values • Results in a shared image of a community imagines most desired future • Provides a broad context within which goals are set and plans are developed • Majority of planning efforts now launched with a visioning exercise (reflective of more citizen participation)

  11. 2. Rethinking State and Local Planning • Comprehensive plans • Neighborhood plans • Redevelopment plans

  12. …2. Functional Plans • Functional Plans • Health services • Bicycle and pedestrian • Transit • Streets and circulation • Trails • Parks • Housing • Economic development • Schools and campuses

  13. 3. Local Implementation Tools • Zoning and subdivision regulations • Rethink development density • Mix land uses • Connect streets and routes • Require sidewalks • Open space • Transit-oriented development • Traditional neighborhood development

  14. …3. More Implementation Tools • Capital improvement programs • Streetscape improvements • Traffic calming in neighborhoods • Transportation enhancements • Financial set asides for parks and trails

  15. Improve the pedestrian environment Security, lighting, visibility Protection from traffic Adequate accommodation Building orientation, setback requirements Public art Architecture and appearance Street trees, landscaping, open spaces Well connected routes 4. Site Design and Development

  16. …4. Site Design and Development • Bicycle facilities • Sidewalk requirements • Parking lot layout and design • Amenities/conveniences for active people • Encouraging signage • Usable parks, open space • Accessible stairways

  17. 5. Siting and Use of Public Facilities and Capital Spending • Public Spaces • Schools • Post offices • Libraries • Museums • Parks • City Hall • Campuses • Community Centers

  18. Project StaffPlanning and Public Health American Planning Association Marya Morris, AICP, Project Director National Association of County and City Health Officials Valerie Rogers, MPH, Project Director Jessica Solomon Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Andrew Dannenberg, MD, MPH Chris Kochtitsky,AICP, MPH Laura Harden, MEd