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COUPLING CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Petra Tschakert Department of Biology McGill University Beijing, November 15, 2004. Multi-use ecosystem carbon projects. Large-scale industrial plantations and parks. Maximize C gains + profits Economically viable

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slide1

COUPLING CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Petra Tschakert

Department of Biology

McGill University

Beijing, November 15, 2004

carbon sinks cop 9

Multi-use ecosystem

carbon projects

Large-scale industrial

plantations and parks

  • Maximize C gains + profits
  • Economically viable
  • Exclusion of locals
  • Local employment
  • Highest social risks
  • Maximize livelihood gains
  • Less cost-effective
  • Inclusion (good stewardship)
  • Wider range of benefits
  • Highest social gains
Carbon Sinks (COP 9)

CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM (CDM)

multi use ecosystem carbon projects unfccc cdm

Economic,

Environmental,

and Social Benefits

for Locals

Increased CO2 Uptake

through Improved

Land Use and Management Practices

Benefits for

Global Climate

and

Global Society

Multi-Use Ecosystem Carbon Projects(UNFCCC, CDM)

UN Conventions on Climate Change, Biological Diversity, and Desertification

carbon development disjunction

Global Climate Change

CARBON

SEQUESTRATION

SUSTAINABLE

DEVELOPMENT

Mitigation

Adaptation

Baseline scenarios

Best practices

Emission reduction credits

Targets

Leakage

Verification

Eradicating extreme poverty

Eradicating hunger

Resilient livelihoods

Env. Sustainability

Econ. + social development

Equity

Carbon – Development Disjunction

SOCIAL

ACTORS

Compatible?

Mutually

exclusive?

carbon development disjunction5

Global Climate Change

CARBON

SEQUESTRATION

SUSTAINABLE

DEVELOPMENT

Mitigation

Adaptation

Carbon – Development Disjunction

.

Technical + structural

solutions in a

“Predictable World”

Equilibrium, but disturbed

by degradation

back in balance

.

Social + institutional

solutions in a

“World of Uncertainty”

Dynamic, persistent

non-equilibrium

adaptive management

SOCIAL

ACTORS

BRIDGE THE GAP

Compatible?

Mutually

exclusive?

the new carbon economy
The New Carbon Economy

Emerging trade in C emissions

Market-based policy instruments (CDM)

  • Ambitious claims about SD benefits of market-based policy instruments
  • BUT: need to investigate SD and equity dimensions of these instruments
  • Development benefits often more hypothetical than real

(Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research)

Main criticism:

  • Discourses of global managerialism(Adger et al., 2001; Brown and Cabrera, 2003):
  • Difficulties in incorporating local ecological + social realities
  • Downplaying of issues of justice and equity
  • Local losers and winners rendered invisible
  • Focus on global solutions while neglecting heterogeneity at local level
contribution of cdm projects to sustainable development
Contribution of CDM Projects to Sustainable Development
  • Equity = key component of SD(Brown and Cobrera, 2003)
  • Who benefits?
  • Who is included in decision-making and actions?
  • Equity in access to C markets and natural resources
  • (land, property rights)
  • Equity in institutions and decision-making
  • (having a voice, inclusion and negotiation of competing views)
  • Equity in outcome
  • (impact on social actors; winners and losers)
socio economic drivers and incentives

Markets

Policies

Livelihood

strategies

and

decisions

C fluxes

and

stocks

Capitals

Stressors

Socio-economic Drivers and Incentives

Opportunities and Constraints

Land use and management

Measurements

Monitoring

Verification

Social learning

Actor involvement

Empowerment

linking carbon and sustainable livelihoods

Compatibility of

CS options ……

… with livelihood objectives

ADOPTION

Best land use/

management

practices

Best risk

management

strategies

SD

CS

Priority is to cope with risks

and enhance adaptive

responses to change

(reduce vulnerability)

Carbon sequestration

options that

address this priority

Linking Carbon and Sustainable Livelihoods
the greening of the sahel understanding drivers

Outmigration

Rotational fallow scheme

7 villages

Fallow length: 5-30 years

1999: 50% of terroir in fallow

The “Greening” of the Sahel Understanding Drivers
methodologies

Risk mapping

Vulnerability analysis for sustainability

Linking CS options to NAPAs

Methodologies
  • Stakeholder multi-criteria analysis (Brown and Corbera, 2003)
  • Livelihood analysis (Tschakert et al., in prep.)
  • Actor-based cost-benefit analysis (Tschakert, 2004)
  • Cash-flow analysis (STELLA) (Tschakert, 2004)
stakeholder multi criteria analysis brown and corbera 2003
Stakeholder Multi-Criteria Analysis(Brown and Corbera, 2003)
  • Identification of primary and secondary stakeholders
  • Interest and role in project, scale of influence in decision-making
  • General perspectives, priorities, and preferences

2) Qualitative evaluation of SD indicators for project

assessment + monitoring (16 indicators)

  • Carbon: Net CS, Internal rate of return, risk, eligibility under CDM
  • Ecological: soil erosion, species richness, water availability, soil fertility
  • Social: income, property rights, access to productive resources, institutional
  • organization, management and decision-making, participation, health
  • services, education + capacity building
  • 3) Project evaluation under criteria/indicators matrix
  • 4) Ranked alternatives and qualitative data for project planning
livelihood analysis
Livelihood Analysis

Livelihood = opportunity set of an individual or a household determined by

their asset endowment (land, labor, human capital, livestock) and the chosen

allocation of those assets across various activities to generate benefits

(Barrett et al., 2001)

Analysis of diversification patters = to understand what people consider

their most feasible and attractive options for exchanging and allocating assets

  • Interhousehold heterogeneity in asset endowments + market access
  • Determines HH choices, LH strategies, and diversification patterns
  • Determines likelihood of changing these patterns (CS project)
land use per wealth group panama
Land Use per Wealth Group, Panama

Tschakert (unpublished)

Winners and Losers?

cost benefit analysis old peanut basin net present values npv 25 years ha 1 20 discount rate

Best management practices

Tschakert. 2004, Agricultural Systems, 81 (3): 227-253

Cost-Benefit Analysis, Old Peanut BasinNet Present Values (NPV), 25 years ($ ha-1), 20% Discount Rate
dryland trade offs c gains versus economic profitability

Medium HH

?

Tschakert. In Climate change and global food security (in press)

Dryland Trade-offsC gains versus economic profitability
cash flow analysis at hh level stella
Cash Flow Analysis at HH Level (STELLA)

Tschakert. 2004, Agricultural Systems, 81 (3): 227-253

inventory of management options senegal

Poor

HH

Rich

HH

Inventory of Management Options, Senegal

Tschakert. 2004, Agricultural Systems, 81 (3): 227-253

carbon sequestration projects
Carbon Sequestration Projects

Risks:

Illegal wood poaching

Fires

Encroachment

Low payments

High transaction costs

Leakage (forest fires,

cattle grazing)

Lack of human resources

project results trends and lessons
Project Results, Trends, and Lessons
  • Farmers and communities are not homogeneous groups
  • They do NOT participate fully, benefit equally and share same interests in C
  • Better-endowed actors are more likely to participate in and benefit from projects

(larger land holdings, high-return income generating activities, less reliance on cropland)

  • Women play key role in NRM, but excluded from project decision-making
  • Some opposition (fear that land is sold to foreigners)
  • Difficulties to understand concept of CS, funding, C market
  • Need for robust and flexible institutional framework
  • Only small improvements (income, diversification, other env + dev concerns)
  • Financial benefits, but only for a small number of families
  • Consolidation of land tenure
  • Enhanced social capital through strengthening of local institutions
  • Need for basket of management choices from which actors choose

Brown, Adger, Boyd, Corbera-Elizalde, Shackley, 2004

Tschakert, 2004 and Tschakert and Tappan, 2004

Grieg-Gran, Porras, Wunder, 2005 (in press)

critical elements for regional c budgets
Critical Elements for Regional C Budgets
  • Understand drivers of land use change:
  • Land use decision are linked to household diversification patterns
  • Interhousehold heterogeneity in constraints and incentives is

reflected in diversification behavior

  • Need for ground-truthing
  • Address opportunities and constraints of actors to

get involved in carbon sequestration activities:

  • Evaluation of stakeholder needs
  • Collective learning + capacity building
slide24

Relevant literature cited:

Adger, W.N., Benjaminsen, T.A., Brown, K. and H. Svarstad. 2001. Advancing a political ecology of global environmental discourses. Development and Change, 32: 681-715.

Brown K. and E. Corbera. 2003. Exploring equity and sustainable development in the

new carbon economy. Climate Policy, 3S1: S41-S56.

Tschakert P. 2004. The costs of soil carbon sequestration: an economic analysis

For small-scale farming systems in Senegal. Agricultural Systems, 81 (3): 227-253

Tschakert. More food, less poverty? The potential role of carbon sequestration

In smallholder farming systems in Senegal. In Climate change and global food security (in press)

Tschakert P. and G. Tappan. 2004. The social context of carbon sequestration:

Considerations from a multi-scale environmental history of the Old Peanut Basin

Of Senegal. Journal of Arid Environments, 59: 535-564.

Brown, K., Adger, N. Boyd, E., Corbera-Elizalde, E. and S. Shackley. 2004. How do

CDM projects contribute to sustainable development? Technical Report 16,

Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research.