iso tc37 sc4 tdg3 discourse relations
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ISO/TC37/SC4 TDG3 Discourse Relations. HASIDA Koiti [email protected]go.jp ITRI, AIST, Japan. Issues. Definition Applications Granularity Headedness Taxonomy Wrapped Arguments Relation with Other Tasks. Definition. A discourse relation is

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issues
Issues
  • Definition
  • Applications
  • Granularity
  • Headedness
  • Taxonomy
  • Wrapped Arguments
  • Relation with Other Tasks
definition
Definition

A discourse relation is

  • a relation among events, states of affairs, and/or their types
    • [I worked hard] to [pass the exam].
  • semantic (informational), pragmatic (presentational), or both.
    • [Tom came] because [Mary came].
    • = [I infer [Tom came]] because [Mary came].

event

(arg1)

purpose

relation

event type

(arg2)

conclusion

pragmatic

evidence

result

semantic

cause

applications
Applications
  • Description of pragmatic/semantic structure of discourse
  • Semantic Authoring
    • improvement of quality
    • reduction of cost
granularity
Granularity
  • Relations vs. Discourse Connectives
  • Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST)
    • 40~80 relations
  • Penn Discourse TreeBank (PDTB)
    • 250 explicit connectives
  • Ichikawa (1957, 1963, 1978)
    • about 30 relations
  • Infinitely many non-synonymous connectives
    • e.g., fifteen minutes after
headedness
Headedness
  • Which argument of a discourse relation is the head (nucleus) may depend on the context.
    • Discourse graph (next page)
  • Semantic authoring may use relations underspecified in terms of headedness.
discourse graph not tree
Discourse Graph (not Tree)
  • A huge amount of content is necessary to implement ubiquitous information service.
  • So content must be easy to create.
  • Also, the retrieval of content must be quick and easy to implement ubiquitous information service.
  • Hence semantic annotation is necessary.
  • So intelligent content technology is necessary.
taxonomy
Taxonomy
  • RST: relations
    • mononuclear (single head)
      • presentational, subject-matter (informational)
    • multinuclear (multiple heads)
  • PDTB: connectives
    • explicit
      • conjunction
        • subordinate, coordinate
      • adverbial
    • implicit
taxonomy cont
Taxonomy (cont.)
  • Ichikawa
    • binary logical relations
      • derivation, concessive, others
    • multilateral relations
      • addition, comparison, diversion, others
    • elaborative relations
      • parallelism, complement, chain
  • Merging RST and Ichikawa
    • about 50 relations, modulo headedness
wrapped arguments
Wrapped Arguments
  • A discourse relation may concern not the whole argument but its core wrapped in an attitude report, a modal operator, etc.
  • How to identify the core (real argument)?
    • explicit annotation

Remember all those vegetables

you slipped under the table ?

arg2

you slipped under the table

cause

Maybe that’s why

Sparky lived so long.

arg1

Sparky lived so long

explicit annotation
Explicit Annotation
  • Relations and their arguments should be annotated to specify the corresponding text spans.

Remember all those vegetables

you slipped under the table ?

you slipped under the table

equal

arg1

result

Maybe that ’s why

Sparky lived so long.

that

arg2

Sparky lived so long

relation with other tasks
Relation with Other Tasks
  • Semantic Relations, Semantic Roles, Temporal Relations, and Quantifications
  • Overlap or Projection
    • [Tom came] at [8 o’clock].
    • [Tom came] when [Mary came].

time

(semantic role)

equality or

Projection?

equality or

projection?

circumstance

(discourse rel.)

proposals
Proposals
  • Granularity
    • multiple granularities in a hierarchical taxonomy
  • Headedness
    • discourse relations modulo headedness
  • Taxonomy
    • Ichikawa’s taxonomy as baseline
  • Wrapped Arguments
    • explicit annotation
  • Relation with Other Tasks
    • common relations to reduce their number
name of binary relation
Name of Binary Relation
  • Naming Convention for Relation R
    • noun & adjective … arg2 is R of arg1.
      • subject, agent, patient, purpose, example, etc.
    • verb … arg1 R arg2.
      • includes, contains, etc.
    • preposition … arg1 isR arg2.
      • after, in, until, etc.
ad