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Sinkholes

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  1. Sinkholes Created By: Marcous Phillips

  2. What is a sinkhole • A sinkhole is a depression in the ground that has no natural external surface drainage. • Water drains to the subsurface

  3. Causes of sinkholes • Underneath soil/rock is dissolved by groundwater flowing through the material. • Human involvement

  4. Factors in sinkholes • Aquifer systems • The soil above the system is balanced by the water pressure in the aquifer. When water is removed from system it destabilizes the pressure, increasing the chance of a sinkhole forming • Higher chance in urban

  5. Factors in sinkholes • Karst Terrain • landscape formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks like limestone and gypsum. • characterized by sinkholes, caves, and underground drainage systems

  6. Types of Sinkholes • Dissolution sinkholes • ground with little overburden • Water erodes the rock away • deep impression in the ground forming a basin

  7. Types of Sinkholes • Cover-collapse sinkhole • Water erodes rock away underneath overburden • Overburden soil loses stability • Rapid and sudden collapse • Can take weeks or years to reach point of collapse

  8. Types of Sinkholes • Human involvement • Leaky pipes • Sewer leakage • Pumping of groundwater • Construction • Water diversion • These are majors in formation of a sinkhole

  9. Most Effected Areas Florida, Texas, Alabama, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Pennsylvania are most prone.

  10. Prevention of Sinkholes • Natural Sinkholes are very hard to prevent • Human made sinkholes can be avoidable • Proper construction and maintenance of any underground pipes • Proper groundwater usage • Helps keep water table high and supports overburden • When a sinkhole occurs make sure it is kept trash free • Sinkholes usually have a direct link to drinking water which trash thrown into the sinkhole can lead to pollution of drinking water

  11. Famous Sinkholes • Guatemala City’s Sinkholes, Guatemala • Happened in 2007, 300 ft. down

  12. Famous Sinkholes • Devil’s Sinkhole, Texas, U.S.A. • 40 ft. by 60 ft. opening , 400 ft. down

  13. Sources • http://water.usgs.gov/edu/sinkholes.html • http://science.howstuffworks.com/nature/natural-disasters/sinkhole.htm • http://www.esi.utexas.edu/outreach/caves/karst.php • http://amr.edwardsaquifer.org/display_education_portal_m.php?pg=education_how_does_the_aquifer_work • www.geocaching.com • http://www.sjrwmd.com/watersupply/howsinkholesform.html • http://www.therichest.com/expensive-lifestyle/location/the-top-10-most-amazing-sinkholes-on-earth/