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What are your personal views on learning?. Necessary to become more “whole” - integrated Natural human process – with right conditions Gaining confidence in the area – from self or others

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what are your personal views on learning
What are your personal views on learning?
  • Necessary to become more “whole” - integrated
  • Natural human process – with right conditions
  • Gaining confidence in the area – from self or others
  • Reflecting on personal experiences in order to make meaning – new or different perspective – change in behaviour/knowledge/belief
  • Relevance – to learner – motivates
  • Relatedness/connection – previous experiences/knowledge
  • Creative leap/abstract thinking
slide2

The Student Understanding

of Learning

  • Categories of learning :
  • Marton Dall’Alba & Beaty 1990
    • 1 increasing own knowledge
    • 2 memorising and reproducing
    • 3 applying
    • 4 understanding
    • 5 getting perspectives on things
    • 6 changing as a person
approaches to learning
Approaches to Learning
  • Surface - Reproducing
    • to learn without reflecting on the purpose or a strategy
  • Strategic - Organising
    • putting effort and time into learning, working in an organised fashion
  • Deep - Transforming
    • relating ideas, looking for patterns/underlying ideas, gaining an understanding
what is the role of a teacher
What is the role of a “teacher”?
  • Contextualise/frame/offer perspective
  • Structure
  • Trust/safety in the learning environment
  • Awareness – internal & external elements – impact on individuals
  • Information transmission – share ideas/knowledge
  • Drawing out – previous knowledge/experience
  • Encouraging reflection & participation
  • Pastoral role
  • Mediation – authority & learner
  • Offering opportunities/possibility – open up possibilities
  • Inspirational/motivational
  • Setting a learning culture
  • Role model
  • Relating to students
  • Organised – preparation
  • Flexible/adaptable
  • Signposting – identifying where and what
  • Knowledge!
  • A learner
model of awareness
Model of Awareness

Perceived Competence

Competent

Unconscious

Competent

Conscious

Incompetent

Unconscious

Incompetent

Conscious

Time

slide6
What elements can you recognise as good practice from your own practice?
  • What areas do you believe you would like to develop in your own practice?
slide7
Williams & Burden (1997) “Teachers beliefs about what learning is will affect everything they do in the classroom, whether these beliefs are implicit or explicit. Even if a teacher acts spontaneously, or from habit without thinking about the action, such actions are nevertheless prompted by a deep-rooted belief that may never have been articulated or made explicit”. (p.56).
slide8
Empirical relationship between teachers’ views of teaching and students approach to learning (Kember & Gow, 1994; Prosser & Trigwell, 1999; Prosser, Trigwell & Waterhouse, 1999)
  • How teachers approach their teaching influences the students’ learning outcome (Kember, 1997; Trigwell et al. 1999)
four conditions of learning bransford 2000
Four Conditions of Learning Bransford, 2000
  • Student focussed
    • learning is enhanced when the teacher acknowledges and incorporates the knowledge and beliefs that the learner brings to the given situation
student focused
Student Focused

Trigwell et al (1999)

  • Teachers’ approaches to teaching impact on students’ approaches to learning:

student focused (conceptual change) teachers

students adopting a deep approach

teacher focus (information transmission) teachers

students adopting surface approaches to learning.

slide12
Students adopting a deeper approach

demonstrated superior learning.

four conditions of learning bransford 20001
Four Conditions of Learning Bransford, 2000
  • Knowledge Rich
    • “usable/transferable knowledge” rather than a list of disconnected facts – threshold concepts
  • Community Valued
    • an importance is given to the learning by the individual and their peers
slide14
Create a flying object using the piece of paper provided
  • The flying object will be assessed on distance travelled and accuracy
four conditions of learning bransford 20002
Four Conditions of LearningBransford, 2000
  • Knowledge Rich
    • “usable/transferrable knowledge” rather than a list of disconnected facts
  • Community Valued
    • an importance is given to the learning by the individual and their peers
  • Student focussed
    • learning is enhanced when the teacher acknowledges and incorporates the knowledge and beliefs that the learner brings to the given situation
  • Assessment driven
slide16

Biggs 2000

DeepSurfaceStrategic

UnderstandingReplicationAchievement

UnderstandingReplicationAchievement

assessment
Assessment

“Students can escape bad teaching: they can’t avoid bad assessment”

“Assessment methods and requirements probably have a greater influence on how and what students learn than any other single factor”

constructive alignment
Constructive Alignment
  • If students are to learn desired outcomes in a reasonably effective manner, then the teachers fundamental task is to get students to engage in learning activities that are likely to result in achieving those outcomes (Shuell, 1986).
3p model
3P Model

Presage

Process

Product

Student Factors

Learning Focused Activity

Learning Outcomes

Teaching Context

teaching context
Teaching Context
  • A balanced system including:
    • curriculum
    • teaching methods
    • assessment procedures
    • teacher student climate
    • institutional climate
slide21

MO

I

n

t

e

n

t

I

o

n

Assessment

Outcome

APL

PC

Teaching

Methodology

Learning

Outcomes

initial model

MO

I

n

t

e

n

t

I

o

n

Assessment

Outcome

APL

PC

Initial Model
slide23
What elements can you recognise as good practice from your own practice?
  • What areas do you believe you would like to develop in your own practice?
key questions
Key Questions
  • Why
  • What are we assessing
  • What methods
  • Who
  • When
quantity distribution of student effort
Quantity & Distribution of Student Effort
  • Assessed tasks capture sufficient study time and effort
  • These tasks distribute student effort evenly across outcomes and weeks
quality level of student effort
Quality & Level of Student Effort
  • These tasks engage students in productive learning activity
  • Assessment communicates clear and high expectations to students
how do you encourage a deep approach to learning
How do you encourage a deep approach to learning?
  • Don’t tell – ask
  • High participation, feedback, processes for discussion, peer review
  • Pbl v problem solving
  • The “layers” – integrates (relating/application)
  • ASSESSMENT – control, ownership, negotiated
  • Assessment criteria – early, explain why/rationale – link to competency, teaching, lo
  • Relevance
  • Prior knowledge level – acknowledge
  • Intention/motivation – link to national/international devlopments
encouraging a deep approach
Encouraging a Deep Approach
  • Get response from students by questioning and posing problems
  • Build on what students know
  • Let students take risks/make mistakes
  • Encourage depth/understanding rather than breadth of a topic
learning outcomes content
Learning Outcomes/Content
  • Decide what kind/level of knowledge is involved
  • Select topics - be aware of the enemy … coverage
  • Put the objectives together and relate them to the assessment
what skills do critical thinkers show
What skills do critical thinkers show?
  • To see the big picture but also appreciate the detail
  • Confidence/motivation/determination (passion?) – attitude
  • Openness, scepticism
  • Transfer knowledge
  • Outside the box – creative/lateral – creative leaps
  • Right & left brain – logical & creative – relaxed spaciousness
  • Marriage of intuition & knowledge
  • Originality
  • Building on a base
  • Curiosity
  • Focus & discrimination
  • Self-care
thinking inclination capability sensitivity
Thinking – inclination, capability & sensitivity
  • Intellectually careful – thorough/organized
  • Plan & strategic – set goals/plan
  • Broad & adventurous – open minded
  • Seeking & evaluating reasons - questioning
  • Clarifying understanding – ideas into context
  • Sustained intellectual curiosity – zest for inquiry
  • Metacognitive – to think about how you think
variation practice
Variation & Practice
  • Opportunities should be given for ‘quality practice’
  • Variety of practice aids performance
  • Assessment should reflect strongly that which the students are intended to learn
slide35

Low variation (repeating one task)

High Variation

Practice ‘scores’ New Repeat of Task Practice Task

Observed as adaptive expertise