JFK and the Cold War Ch 15.2
Wednesday, May 16, 2012 • Daily goal(s): Understand how JFK responded to Cold War conflicts like the Bay of Pigs, Cuban Missile Crisisand the Berlin Wall.
A flexible response • JFK wanted more troops and non-nuclear weapons which could be used as a more “flexible response” to Cold War conflicts.
New look vs. Flexible Response • Review your notes from Ch 13-4 on the Eisenhower’s “New Look” and compare it to “flexible response.” • Which one do you think is a more effective way of using the military? Why? • Which method seems cheaper?
The Peace Corps • The Peace Corps sent young Americans to developing countries for humanitarian aid. • How might the Peace corps be related to the Truman Doctrine? • Is it political, economic or military intervention? • Would you ever consider joining the Peace Corps?
Space Race • Kennedy challenged America to go to the moon by the end of the 1960s. • The Apollo Program landed the first man on the moon in 1969.
TENSIONS RISE DURING THE REMAINDER OF 1961. ON AUGUST 13TH EAST GERMANY BEGINS PREPARING FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE BERLIN WALL AND ON SEPTEMBER 1 THE USSR RESUMES ATMOSPHERIC TESTING OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS
The Berlin Wall • East Berliners were fleeing to West Berlin to escape Communism. • The Soviets built the Berlin Wall to stop the migration. • The Berlin Wall became the symbol of the Cold War.
FIDEL CASTRO ON JANUARY 1, 1959 REVOLUTION IN CUBA SUCCESSFULLY OVERTHREW THE GOVERNMENT. ON JANUARY 6TH FIDEL CASTRO BECAME PREMIER AND LATER COMMUNIST DICTATOR OF CUBA. MANY CUBANS FLEE TO THE U.S.
CASTRO DECLARED HIMSELF A COMMUNIST AND ALLIED CUBA WITH THE SOVIET UNION CASTRO AND KHRUSHCHEV
Cold War Scenario: Communist Cuba • Now that Castro has taken Cuba and made it a Communist country the President must act. As the President’s advisor what would you recommend? • A) Threaten Castro with Nuclear weapons if Communism doesn’t end in Cuba. • B) Have the US Army invade if Castro doesn’t end Communism in Cuba. • C) Have the CIA send Cuban Americans to invade Cuba and overthrow Castro. • D) Cut off all trade with Cuba until Communism is ended.
CUBAN EXILES INVADING CUBA WITH THE HELP OF THE US, APRIL 1961 BAY OF PIGS INVASION SITE
THE INVASION WAS A FAILURE AND ALL THE CUBAN EXILE INVASION FORCE WAS EITHER KILLED OR CAPTURED BY CASTRO’S ARMY. CASTRO’S FORCES ON THE MARCH CASTRO’S AIR FORCE DESTROYED THE INVADING SHIPS
The Bay of Pigs • JFK approved a secret CIA operation to invade Cuba with Cuban exiles to overthrow Castro’s communist government. • It was a complete failure.
Aerial photographs from U.S. spy planes left no doubt that the Russians were installing nuclear missiles in Cuba aimed at the U.S.
LOW ALTITUDE VIEW OF MISSILE PREPARATION AREA. THE PILOT TAKING THIS SHOT FLEW AT AN ALTITUDE OF ABOUT 250 FEET, AND AT THE SPEED OF SOUND. EACH ONE OF THE RUSSIAN MISSILES IN CUBA HAD THE EXPLOSIVE POWER OF 50 HIROSHIMA TYPE ATOMIC BOMBS
DECLASSIFIED 1962 MAP SHOWING THE DISTANCES NUCLEAR ARMED MISSILES WOULD GO IF FIRED FROM CUBA. ALMOST ALL MAJOR US POPULATION CENTERS WERE WITHIN RANGE. MAPS LIKE THIS CONVINCED JFK THAT THE SOVIET MISSILES MUST BE REMOVED FROM CUBA.
JFK HAD TWO CHOICES OF HOW TO DEAL WITH THE SITUATION IN CUBA: • FIRST: HE COULD ORDER AIRSTRIKES ON THE MISSILE SITES IN CUBA AND RISK AN ALL OUT NUCLEAR WAR WITH THE USSR • SECOND: HE COULD ORDER A NAVAL BLOCKADE AND STOP SOVIET SHIPS FROM BRINGING IN MISSILES AND OTHER EQUIPMENT. NO ONE KNEW HOW THE RUSSIANS WOULD REACT TO THIS.
PRESIDENT KENNEDY SIGNING CUBA QUARANTINE PROCLAMATION. OVAL OFFICE,WHITE HOUSE, 10/23/1962
OCTOBER 27, 1962: THE SOVIET SHIP GROZNY CROSSES THE QUARANTINE LINE, BUT STOPS AFTER U.S. NAVY SHIPS FIRE STAR SHELLS ACROSS HER BOW. PHOTOS OF US SHIPS ENFORCNG THE QUARANTINE AND (LEFT) SHADOWING A SOVIET SUBMARINE
The Cuban Missile Crisis • The Soviet Union placed Nuclear weapons in Cuba, but they were not ready to be fired. • The US placed a Naval blockade on Cuba to prevent the Nuclear equipment from arriving. • The Soviets backed down and removed the Missiles.