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Peaceful Coexistence. Causes in the USSR. 5 th March 1953, Stalin died Malenkov, Beria and Kruschev vied for the control of the USSR Beria was tried as a British spy, and executed by firing squad on 23 rd December 1953

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Causes in the ussr
Causes in the USSR

  • 5th March 1953, Stalin died

  • Malenkov, Beria and Kruschev vied for the control of the USSR

  • Beria was tried as a British spy, and executed by firing squad on 23rd December 1953

  • Malenkov was became premier of the USSR until 1957, when he was forced to resign. In 1961, he was expelled from the Communist Party, and exiled to a hydro-electric plant in Kazakhstan

  • 25th February 1956, Kruschev delivered ‘Secret Speech, and thereafter was known as the leader of the USSR

Peaceful coexistence

  • In his 1956 Secret Speech, Kruschev blamed the excesses of the Soviet Union on Stalin

  • Kruschev condemned the cult of personality that surrounded Stalin

  • The speech strengthened Kruschev’s standing in the USSR, but led many in the Eastern Bloc to believe that the Soviet Union was loosening its grip on the sattelite states

Causes in the us
Causes in the US

  • 30th January 1953, Eisenhower was sworn in as president

  • John Dulles, Secretary of State, was a staunch anti-communist

  • Eisenhower brought in the ‘New Look’ policy, marking a change from Dulles’ suggested policy of ‘rollback’

Evidence of peaceful coexistence
Evidence of Peaceful Coexistence

  • The ‘New Look’ policy stated that if the US stopped the spread of communism, then without any opportunity to expand, the USSR would collapse without the need for war

  • Peaceful Coexistence, taken by Kruschev from Malenkov’s Third Route policy, stated that capitalist countries would destroy each other if left alone, removing the need for war

  • The idea of Mutually Assured Destruction reduced the likelihood of nuclear war

  • In 1959, there was a Soviet exhibit in New York, and an American exhibit in Moscow

  • Vice-president Nixon visited the USSR, and had an impromptu argument with Kruschev in a model US kitchen, known as the ‘Kitchen Debate’

Peaceful coexistence

  • In April 1955, the USSR suggested a formal peace treaty with Austria

  • France, Britain, the US and the USSR withdrew their occupying forces from Austria

  • Austria became neutral, independent country

  • In July 1955, Geneva Summit took place

  • First meeting of the leaders of the ‘Great Powers’ since 1945

Evidence against peaceful coexistence
Evidence against Peaceful Coexistence Austria

  • By and large, the Geneva Summit failed to solve any major issues

  • The USSR proposed the mutual dissolvement of NATO and the Warsaw Pact, a European Security Treay and free elections for a reunified Germany. These proposals were rejected by the US

  • The US proposed an ‘Open Skies’ policy, where both nations would exchange plans of military installations and allow the other nation to observe their current installations. The USSR was hostile to these proposals, refusing to even send a formal reply

Peaceful coexistence

  • 4 Austriath October 1957, the USSR launched Sputnik, the first artificial satellite, into space

  • Led to fears in the US that the USSR had overtaken them in the technology race

  • The US media promoted the idea of a ‘missile gap’, that the USSR had overtaken the US in the production of nuclear warheads, a concept that Kruschev constantly boasted

  • In response, Eisenhower supported the setting up of NASA in 1958, in order to have a more coherent plan for space exploration

  • Federal aid was given to schools, to promote the sciences

Peaceful coexistence

  • Simultaneously, France, Britain and Israel invaded Egypt to remove President Nasser

  • The USSR labelled the Suez Crisis imperialism

  • The US condemned both military actions