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Comparing public policies in the six countries studied in AP Comparative Government. By Karen Waples. Cherry Creek High School. Public Policy Making Includes:. A set of issues or problems The individuals and groups who seek to influence policy making

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comparing public policies in the six countries studied in ap comparative government

Comparing public policies in the six countries studied in AP Comparative Government

By Karen Waples

Cherry Creek High School

public policy making includes
Public Policy Making Includes:
  • A set of issues or problems
  • The individuals and groups who seek to influence policy making
  • The decisions made by the state as a result
  • The consequences of those decisions
slide3
Was designed to address rapid population growth
  • Was devised by the Chinese Government
  • Provided incentives to couples that limited their families to one child.
  • Imposed penalties on families that exceeded this limit.

*Some exceptions were made for ethnic minorities.

*Was successful in reducing China’s population growth rate.

Example: China’s One Child Policy

slide4
What do you think?What will be the most important consequence of the One Child Policy for China in the future?
  • Improved economic performance
  • The creation of a generation that is individualistic and self-centered
  • An economic strain on Chinese families who must provide care for elderly relatives
  • A shift away from a culture of communalism and toward a culture of consumerism
policy making

Policy Making

6 Countries: UK, Russia, Nigeria, China, Iran & Mexico

the policy making process can differ in
The policy making process can differ in:
  • Democratic and authoritarian states
  • Developed and developing countries
  • Unitary and Federal systems
  • Parliamentary and Presidential systems
slide7

Health Care Policies

Governments must consider:

  • What should be the government’s role, if any, in providing health care to citizens?
  • Who will qualify?
  • What levels of service will be provided?
  • How much will it cost?
  • Who will bear these costs?
uk national health system nhs
UK: National Health System (NHS)
  • Provides most health care free of cost to its residents.
  • According to the World Health Organization, the United Kingdom ranks 18 in health systems.
major criticisms
Major Criticisms:
  • the burgeoning cost of health care
  • the long wait time for diagnosis and treatment
what do you think which of the following is the best policy to address the issues facing nhs
What do you think?Which of the following is the best policy to address the issues facing NHS?
  • Require British citizens to pay a portion of their health care costs.
  • Privatize the entire system.
  • Continue to provide free health care but streamline the system to cut red tape.
  • Provide citizens with basic preventative care, but require payment for specialized care.
russian health care system
Russian health care system
  • Provides, at least in theory, free health care to all citizens.
  • According to the World Health Organization, Russia ranks 130 in health systems.
major criticisms12
Major Criticisms:
  • Corruption is widespread.
  • Alcoholism and heart disease rates are high.
slide13
What do you think? Which of the following is the best policy to improve the Russian health care system?
  • Require Russian citizens to pay a portion of their health care costs.
  • Privatize the entire system.
  • Crack down on corruption.
  • Focus on overall economic growth to improve the Russian economy as a whole.
slide14

What do you think? Both the UK and Russia provide free health care, yet the results of these systems are very different. Which factor best explains these differences?

  • Russia has a political culture where corruption is an accepted part of the system, while the United Kingdom is much less corrupt.
  • Democratic policymaking in the United Kingdom has resulted in better health care policy than the authoritarian nature of Russian policymaking.
  • The United Kingdom is a developed country, and Russia has never caught up to the level of development in Western Europe.
  • Citizens of the United Kingdom have higher expectations of government than Russian citizens.
health care policies hiv aids crisis

Health Care Policies: HIV/AIDS Crisis

Nigeria & Russia: Ticking Time Bombs

in making hiv aids policies government must consider
In making HIV/AIDS policies, government must consider:
  • Education and prevention programs
  • Diagnosis and treatment

*An effective HIV/AIDS policy cannot be developed until the state acknowledges the problem.

nigeria
Nigeria:
  • Healthcare is provided by a patchwork of national, state and local governments, private insurance, and NGOs.
  • The availability of heath care depends on location, and many rural areas lack even the most basic health care.
  • Nigeria ranks 187 in health care.
  • Nigeria faces an HIV/AIDS crisis.
slide18
What do you think? Which of the following policies would be the most effective in stemming the effects of HIV/AIDS crisis in Nigeria?
  • Improve rural healthcare.
  • Improve HIV/AIDS education programs.
  • Reduce government corruption.
  • Acknowledge the problem and request international aid.
russia
Russia
  • People who are HIV-positive are entitled to free treatment, but there is a big gap between policy and implementation due to lack of funds.
  • The virus is spreading among the general population, but many Russians do not feel that they are at risk. They view the disease as a problem facing only sex workers and drug users.
slide20
What do you think?Which of the following policies would be the most effective in stemming the effects of HIV/AIDS crisis in Russia?
  • Provide more funding for local HIV/AIDS Centers.
  • Improve HIV/AIDS education programs.
  • Negotiate with Western drug companies for lower prices.
  • Provide government funding for the production of drugs within Russia.
slide21

What do you think? Both Russia and Nigeria face an HIV/AIDS crisis. Which statement best explains why such different states are facing similar policy challenges?

  • Both countries lack economic resources.
  • Both countries ignored the problem until it became a crisis.
  • The political culture in both countries causes most citizens to avoid talking about the problem.
  • Both governments feared losing legitimacy if they acknowledge the extent of the disease.
all states face a classic trade off between economic growth and environmental protection policies
These countries in particular, have suffered severe environmental damage, partly as a result of their economic policies.

China

Russia

Iran

Mexico

Nigeria

All states face a classic trade off between economic growth and environmental protection policies.
china is choking on its own success as china roars pollution reaches deadly extremes
“China is choking on its own success.” -As China Roars, Pollution Reaches Deadly Extremes
  • Environmental damage is catastrophic.
  • Cancer is the leading cause of death.
slide25
As a result, China has developed policies to improve the environment, including numerical targets for reducing emissions and conserving energy.
  • Most of these targets have gone unmet; the leaders of China are “either unwilling or unable to make fundamental changes.”
  • Failure to improve the environment may lead to a loss of legitimacy, but the same thing might happen if economic growth rates slow.
slide26

What do you think? China’s policy for green GDP failed. Which of the following statements describes the most important reason for this failure?

  • The policy was window dressing, and Chinese leadership never really supported green initiatives.
  • Corruption at the local levels hinders enforcement of environmental policies.
  • The results of environmental research were so sobering that the project was banished due to the negative publicity it would generate.
  • Sweeping edicts are too broad to generate effective environmental policy.
in iran environmental policy has taken a back seat to economic development
In Iran, environmental policy has taken a back seat to economic development.
  • Environmental degradation is often a characteristic of authoritarian governments, where the state takes a preeminent role in economic development.
example
Example:
  • The government diverted water for the Sivand Dam against the protests of environmental and heritage activists and at the risk of damaging historical sites and natural habitat.
slide29
What do you think? Is environmental degradation more likely in authoritarian systems? Which statement best describes your opinion?
  • Yes, authoritarian governments are more interested in maintaining economic performance and legitimacy than they are in the health and well-being of their citizens.
  • No. Most governments are more focused on economic growth than on the environment, whether or not they are authoritarian.
  • Yes, because authoritarian government rarely face repercussions for environmental damage.
  • No. Most environmental damage is the result of an international economy where corporations are able to avoid regulation in a “race to the bottom.”
mexico a democratic country has traded economic development for environmental protection
Mexico, a democratic country, has traded economic development for environmental protection.
  • The PROAIRE program was created to forge a sense of community participation in preserving the environment and health.
  • Although Mexico still faces an environmental crisis, the program has helped shape the discussion about its long term air quality policy and programs.
slide31
What do you think? Which country will face the greatest loss of legitimacy as a result of environmental damage?
  • Iran
  • China
  • Mexico
  • None of these countries will face a serious challenge to its legitimacy
education policy poses several challenges for the state
Education policy poses several challenges for the state.
  • A well-educated population is needed to keep up with the global economy.
  • However, a well-educated population can pose a challenge to the state’s authority, especially when jobs are not available to graduates.
states must make decisions about whether to subsidize education and at what level
States must make decisions about whether to subsidize education and at what level.
  • For example: providing a free college education is expensive for the state and may result in a loss of access for all but the most talented (or well connected) students.
case study nigeria
Case Study: Nigeria
  • Nigeria provides students with free college education, but state subsidies per student are low and so are professors’ salaries.
  • Access is limited to those students who score extremely well on national tests.
what do you think is there a better education policy for nigeria
What do you think? Is there a better education policy for Nigeria?
  • No. At least the state pays for the most talented young people to attend college.
  • Yes. Women are underrepresented, and this is a waste of a valuable human resource.
  • Yes. More colleges should be built, and students should be required to pay tuition. This would open access to more students.
  • No. By opening access to students who can afford to pay for college, Nigeria will also be opening the door for less talented students whose families can afford to pay tuition.
case study united kingdom
Case Study: United Kingdom
  • The UK subsidizes education to a certain extent.
  • In 2010 tuition was raised from 3,000 to 5,000 pounds per year.
critics claim
Critics claim:
  • The increased costs will shut the doors to higher education for the middle class.
  • There is a growing concern that incoming students are ill-prepared for college and lack the study and analytical skills necessary to succeed.
slide39
What do you think? Was the tuition increase a wise public policy for the conservative government to enact?
  • Yes. The system was a drain on the state’s budget.
  • Yes. This will make students appreciate education more, because they will be more invested in doing well.
  • No. This will prevent talented students from attending college.
  • No. This will undermine the legitimacy of the government.
policy making in the comparative context
Policy Making in the Comparative Context
  • Public policy is important.
  • Most states face similar problems that demand the attention of policy makers.
  • By comparing public policies we can learn more about how systems function.
  • The consequences of public policy impact the state’s legitimacy and its reputation in the global community.
bibliography
Bibliography:
  • Aids in Nigeria: the ticking time bomb, Africa Economic Analysis. http://www.afbis.com/analysis/aids_nigeria.htm
  • As China Roars, Pollution Reaches Deadly Extremes. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/26/world/asia/26china.html
  • Country Higher Education Profiles: Nigeria. The Boston College Center for Higher Education. http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/soe/cihe/inhea/profiles/Nigeria.htm
  • Despite oil wealth, Russia faces huge health care problems, The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/28/business/worldbusiness/28iht-russhealth.4.6394606.html
  • Hauss, Charles. Comparative Politics: Domestic Responses to Global Challenges, 6th ed. Cengage Learning. Belmont, CA. 2009
  • Iran: Environment Takes a Back Seat To Development Plans. Radio Free Europe. http://www.rferl.org/content/article/1078370.html
  • Kesselman, et al. Introduction to Compartive Politics, 5th ed. Wadsworth. Boston, MA. 2009
  • NHS “to undergo radical overhaul.” BBC News Health, July 12, 2010. http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1916570,00.html
  • Russia’s Aids time bomb. BBC Newshttp://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3284141.stm
  • Taking Care of Air Pollution in Mexico City. International Development Research Center. http://www.idrc.ca/en/ev-31594-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html
  • Top universities want higher fees. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/education/10119279.stm
  • Tuition fee increase to L5,000 by 2010 predicted. The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/money/2006/feb/09/highereducation.tuitionfees
electronic resources
Electronic Resources:
  • New York Times. Times Topics http://topics.nytimes.com/topics/reference/timestopics/index.html?scp=1-spot&sq=times%20topics&st=cse.
  • Library of Congress. Country Studies. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/
  • Frontline. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/
  • Foreign Policy. http://www.foreignpolicy.com/
  • PBS Wide Angle. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/wideangle/
  • CIA World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/
  • World Health Organization. Countries. http://www.who.int/countries/en/
  • WHO Country Profiles of Environmental Burden of Disease. http://www.who.int/quantifying_ehimpacts/national/countryprofile/en/index.html