Science and the Environment. Chapter 1. Chapter 1 Section 1 Objectives. 1 . Define environmental science , and compare environmental science with ecology. 2. List the five major fields of study that contribute to environmental science.
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Science and the Environment Chapter 1
Chapter 1 Section 1 Objectives • 1. Define environmental science, and compare environmental science with ecology. • 2. List the five major fields of study that contribute to environmental science. • 3. Describe the major environmental effects of hunter-gatherers, the agricultural revolution, and the Industrial Revolution. • 4. Distinguish between renewable and nonrenewable resources. • 5. Classify environmental problems into three major categories.
Chapter 1 Section 1 Vocab • Environmental Science— • Ecology— • Agriculture— • Natural Resource— • Pollution— • Biodiversity—
What are some environmental Issues? • Globally? • Locally?
Environmental Science Goals • Understand and solve environmental problems • Study the interactions between humans and their environment • How do we use things? • What do we do to change the environment?
What different fields of study are important to environmental science? • Interdisciplinary—many subjects • List as many as you can!
Big 5 subjects • Biology • Earth Science • Physics • Chemistry • Social Studies
Ecology v. Environmental Science • Ecology focuses on how living things interact with each other and nonliving environment • Environmental science focuses mainly on human interaction
Latin and Greek Here are some ones to know! • -ology • Bio- • Zoo- • Geo- • Hydro-
What do people do to the environment? • They change it! • NY—then and now
Hunter Gatherers • Most of human history • Small groups • Moved with animals • Still exist, less common • Overhunted, burned land
Agricultural Revolution • Collected seeds from good plants • Domesticated animals • Started 10,000+ years ago
Agricultural Revolution • Allowed human population to increase • Could support 500x more people • Increased pressures on local environment • Slash and burn • Turned forest into farmland
Agricultural Revolution • Grow your own! • Clear cup • Corn Kernels • Masking tape • Ruler • Record daily for 2 weeks!
Industrial Revolution • 1700s • No more using animals or people for labor • Increase use of fossil fuels • Increase in urban population
Industrial Revolution • Increase in light, sanitation, nutrition, medicine • 1900s—synthetics, plastic Plastic World — ask about me!
Closed system • Earth is considered a closed system • Solar energy comes in, heat goes out • Limited resources • Growing population
Major environmental problems • Resource Depletion • Of natural resources used by us • Two categories of resources • Renewable • Can be replaced relatively quickly by natural resources • Nonrenewable • Forms at a rate much slower than used • Depletion • Large chunk is used up
Natural Resource Classification • Classify this! • In groups • Items • Renewable? • Nonrenewable? • WHY?
Major Environmental Problems • Pollution • We make waste faster than we can get rid of it! • Builds up • Two categories • Biodegradable—can be naturally broken down • EX: Human sewage and food waste • Nonbiodegradable—cannot be broken down naturally • EX: Mercury, lead, plastics Do you remember the element symbols for mercury and lead?
What is biodiversity? • Bio? • Diversity? • Biodiversity?
Major Environmental Problems • Loss of Biodiversity • Mass extinctions have killed 95% of all living things at one time in the past • Who cares about only one species?
Loss of biodiversity All living things impact each other—their extinctions could harm us down the road!!
Chapter 1 Section 1 Objectives • 1. Define environmental science, and compare environmental science with ecology. • 2. List the five major fields of study that contribute to environmental science. • 3. Describe the major environmental effects of hunter-gatherers, the agricultural revolution, and the Industrial Revolution. • 4. Distinguish between renewable and nonrenewable resources. • 5. Classify environmental problems into three major categories. These are good things to know for a test or quiz!
Chapter 1 Section 2 Objectives • 1. Describe “The Tragedy of the Commons.” • 2. Explain the law of supply and demand. • 3. List three differences between developed and developing countries. • 4. Explain what sustainability is, and describe why it is a goal of environmental science.
Would you rather… • Cram for a test one night and do well on the test? • Study some every night and actually learn the material (= higher score on final and possible future courses)
Tragedy of the commons • Conflict within people • Short-term interest of individual • Long-term interest of society • Written by Garret Hardin in 1968
The Original Commons • Referred to areas of land where anyone could put cows on to graze • Land can only support so many animals!!
The Original commons • Short-term: get as many of your animals in the commons as possible… • Destroyed the land • Everyone suffers • Replaced by individual plots
The problem • We need(ed) someone or some group to come in and take responsibility for a resource • Without someone saying how many animals, or how much land, or how many trees…we’ll meet our short term needs first
The Real commons • Our natural resources • Any and all of them • We have to work together so we do not deplete our resources and have nothing left!
What is supply and demand? • Supply? • Demand? • Together?
Economics and the Environment • Supply and demand • Supply: how much of something you have • Demand: how badly other need / want it
Supply and Demand Graph • The greater the demand, the more something is worth • When was the cost highest? _______ • When was the supply highest? _________
Supply and Demand Graph • What is the X axis? _____________ • What is the Y axis? _____________ • What is it called when the lines meet? __________________
Supply and Demand Graph • What is the equilibrium price? _______________ • What happened to the price as demand decreased? ______________ Man, Miss Lichtenwalner really likes these graphs!
Drive self • Costs • Benefits
Parents / Friend drives in • Costs • Benefits
School bus • Costs • Benefits
Costs and benefits • Environmental solutions are EXPENSIVE! • Want to see if benefits outweigh costs • Depends on who is really looking at it
Risk Assessment • How do we create cost-effective ways to protect our health and environment? • What concerns you?