North American Panel Stamford, CT. 19 March 2007. Peter M. Swift. North American Panel AIR EMISSIONS & REVISION of MARPOL ANNEX VI. Peter M. Swift. Drivers of Change.
Peter M. Swift
Peter M. Swift
States and industry are united in trying to ensure that Air Emissions are regulated internationally through the IMO
Fine particles PM2.5LIFE EXPECTANCY:In 2000 reduced by 8.1 months Target For 2020 Down to 5.5 months Life years lost:3.6M in 20002.5M in 2020Premature deaths350,000 in 2000 272,000 in 20201997 Met. year
Percentage of ecosystem area in each model grid cell with nitrogen deposition above “safe level”
Total Ecosystem area exceeded from eutrophication 590 000 km2
1997 met. year
Ships will represent 125% and 101% of land based SO2 and NOx emissions in 2020.
Council of Ministers (EU)
- “Reinforce consideration to promote in revision of Annex VI more ambitious measures as regards tighter global sulphur cap .. and tighter NO2 standards.”
- “Urges EU Member States to submit proposals on tighter NOx standards under Annex VI.”
- “Invites Commission to take action by end 2006 if IMO has not proposed tighter international NOx standards.”
- “Commission to continue its efforts to reduce ships’ emissions.”
NOx reductions / NECA proposal
Japan also supports a two-step approach, 2010 for Tier II and tentatively 2015 for Tier III. Basically, the NOx emission limits should be set to reduce the NOx emissions from ships as much as possible.
Japan also has a project of NOx reduction technologies development. The target date of this project is 2012 and its goal is nearly 80% NOx reduction. At the same time, we propose to introduce geographically-based standard for Tier III, taking into account that there is trade-off relationship between the NOx emission and CO2 emission and that the effect to the environment by NOx is local while the greenhouse effect by CO2 is global.
In order to reduce the total amount of NOx emissions from ships, existing engines should also be regulated. The NOx emission limits and range of existing engines to be regulated should be appropriately determined, taking into account the effect to the environment, their life time, the trend in development of new technologies and so on.
- Baltic Sea - SECA from May 2006
- North Sea - SECA in November 2007
- local regulations on Ship Emissions, which inter alia are inhibiting future expansion/development
- introducing differentiated port fees
Of particular concern to tramp sectors, trading internationally, lifting bunkers in ports worldwide
United States (Individual state and port legislation)
Engine exhaust gases are dependent upon engine type, engine settings and fuel type
‘06 (Date clash with Nov ’06 Council)
Principles behind the INTERTANKO position:
from ALL ships and thus CO2 emissions
ISSUES under discussion include:
At what cost and who takes responsibility ?
VOCs generated both during loading and on passage
ITEMS FOR DISCUSSION include:
” Reduce air emissions from ships ”
- SOx, NOx, PM, VOCs ?
- Later CO2 ?
- Globally, Coastal regions ?
- Phased, where/when/how ?
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