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Project Management
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  1. Project Management

  2. What is project? • A project is a set of activities which are networked in an order and aimed towards achieving the goals of a project. • A programme of non-routine work bringing about a beneficial change. • Has a start and end date • Constrained by cost, time and quality • Scope of work that is well defined • A project is a set of non-repetitive activities which create a unique product or service. | | <document classification>

  3. Examples of a project 1.commissioning a new industrial unit 2. Construction of a house 3. Setting up of an office 4. developing a technology 5. Launching a new product in the market 6. Conducting a seminar 7. Writing of a book | | <document classification>

  4. What is management? Management is the technique of understanding the problems, needs and controlling the use of resources such as cost, time, manpower, materials etc. Project management means : The art of controlling the cost, time, manpower, hw and sw resources involved in a project. | | <document classification>

  5. Important definitions: Project cycle: A project cycle basically consists of the various activities of operations, resources, and the limitations imposed on them. Resource : it refers to manpower, machinery, money and materials required in the project. Scope : it refers to the various parameters that affect the project in its planning, formulation and executions. | | <document classification>

  6. Need for Project Management: Project mgmt. is necessary because: • A project requires huge investment which should not go waste. • A loss in any project would have direct or indirect impact on the society • Prevent failures in project • Scope of the project activity may undergo a change • Technology used may change during the course of project execution. • Changes in economic conditions may affect a project. | | <document classification>

  7. Players : The players in a project management are the individuals and the organizations • That are actively involved in the project • Whose interest may be affected by the outcome (success / failure )of the project. • Exert influence over the project and its result. • Players are also called “stakeholders ” of the project. | | <document classification>

  8. Who is project manager? A project manager is a person who manages the project. The project manager is responsible to carry out all the tasks of a project | | <document classification>

  9. Key Responsibilities of Project Manager : • Budgeting and cost control • Scheduling tasks • Allocating resources • Tracking project expenditures • Ensuring technical quality • Manage relations with the customer and company | | <document classification>

  10. Phases of project mgmt Life cycle: • Analysis and evaluation • Marketing • Design • Inspecting , testing and delivery • Post completion analysis | | <document classification>

  11. Project management principles Five dimensions that must be managed on a project • Features • Quality • Cost • Schedule • staff | | <document classification>

  12. Project mgmt is a Team Work - Proper communications - Feedback system • Reliability on system • Good team mgmt. | | <document classification>

  13. Why do projects fail? A project may fail because of one or more of the following reasons- • Projects objective not in line with business objective • Project mgmt. not observed • Non-dedicated / Less qualified team • Lack of complete support from clients • No prioritization of project activity from an organizational position • Absence of smooth communication between involved parties. | | <document classification>

  14. Steps of a good project Mgmt. are: • define the project • Reduce it to a set of manageable tasks • Obtain appropriate and necessary resources • Build a team to perform the project work • Plan the work and allocate the resources to the tasks. • Monitor and control the work • Report progress to senior mgmt. • Review it to ensure that the lessons are learnt and widely understand. | | <document classification>

  15. The key issues at the planning stage of a project -key stages of the project • Project logic diagram • Key stages responsibility chart • Estimation for all key stages • Optimized project Gantt chart • Updated and reviewed project risk log • Risk mgmt. forms for new high risks • Project operating budget | | <document classification>

  16. Project planning process • 1. Identification process • 2. Review process • 3. Analysis process | | <document classification>

  17. Project organization 1. Initiation 2. Planning 3. Executing 4. Control 5. close | | <document classification>

  18. What is WBS? WBS is the technique to analyze the content of work and cost by breaking it down into its components parts. - The entire process of a project may be considered to be made up on number of sub process placed in different stage called the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)- • WBS is produced by identifying the key elements , breaking each element down into components parts and continuing to breakdown until manageable work packages have been identified. • WBS does not show dependencies | | <document classification>

  19. Mapping of economical zones rather than geographic zones • Continuous floating virtual inventory to save time and efforts | | <document classification>

  20. Estimation Approaches • Bottom up Approach • Top down Approach Estimation Tools: • Algorithmic model • Expert judgment • Analogy • Automated estimated tools for cost and schedule | | <document classification>

  21. Characteristics of project Mindset: • Time • Responsiveness • Information sharing • Processes • Structured planning | | <document classification>

  22. What is change control? 1.Controlling the changes in the project is possible through a proper change mgmt. process and using necessary tools for controlling the change. 2. Change control is necessary to control the increase of work at various stages of project and to manage effectively the disruptions in the stages, if any. | | <document classification>

  23. The process involved in bringing about a change are: • Request for a change • Identify alternate solutions • Decide on the actions for the change • Implement change | | <document classification>

  24. Tools for changing a process: • CMS-Change mgmt. system – it is a methodology which requires collection of all formal documented procedures , defining how project performance will be monitored and evaluated, how project plans could be updated, how various measures can be implemented to control the change process. • CM-Configuration Mgmt.-identify the configuration items and define the naming and numbering scheme, structure the changes, define a backup procedure and follow the methods for tracking the status of configuration items. | | <document classification>

  25. How conflict affects the organizations growth / quality ? A conflict may result out of individual or groups having different opinions. The project gets affected by the conflict. conflict could be resolved by proper understanding among the project members by properly communicating their ideas and discussing the issues in detail. Focus should be quality. | | <document classification>

  26. How to manage the conflict? • Avoid the issue • Approach the problem in such a way as to obtain the solution quickly. • Discuss and share the problem • Any misunderstanding should be resolved by means of a discussion among project members. • Work on a common solution technique. That will lead to a win-win situation. | | <document classification>

  27. What is the role of PMIS in project mgmt? 1. PMIS means Project mgmt. information system. 2. A information system is mainly aimed at providing the mgmt. at different levels with information related to the system of the organization. 3. It helps in maintaining a discipline in the system. 4. It helps in decision making in arriving at optimum allocation of resources. 5. The information system is based on a database of the organization. 6. PMIS also hold schedule, scope changes, risk assessment and actual results. 7. Information system also tell managers if they are working within the scope of the budget. | | <document classification>

  28. Modern Mantra of project Mgmt.-DMAIS : D – Define-benchmark, customer requirement, process flow map, quality function deployement, project mgmt. plan. M – Measure-data collection, defect metrics, sampling A – Analyse – cause and effect, failure modes and effect analysis, decision and risk analysis, root cause analysis, reliability analysis I - Improve- design of experiments, modeling and robust design S – Standardize – control charts, time series, performance mgmt. preventive activities. | | <document classification>

  29. What is PMO? • PMO stands for Project mgmt. office • An office is a small group of people which coordinates various activities responsible to an enterprise for controlling at least one function. • PMO will act as a coordinating body giving support to all of them in terms of human resources, budgets, procurement of materials, taking care of statutory and legal requirements. • The project managers may depend on PMO to provide them with information about sub-contractors, equipments,any changes in schedules, customer’s visits or inspection and any facility he may need from other projects. | | <document classification>

  30. PMO will have to resolve conflicts , reconcile competing demands and ensure cooperation. • The PMO should divide its responsibilities for competent handling of all functions- log books expenses, transport, maintenance of eqipments, communication • The PMO must crete and maintain the ability of the project manager to keep focused on the client’s requirements ad meet them. Qs. In cases where there are many projects running, the PMO will act as a --------- giving support to all of them in terms of human resources, budgets, procurement of materials. Ans. Coordinating body | | <document classification>

  31. What is Review and its purpose? • A project review is a process where we capture information from the team experience and see the variances and deviation from the plan, these reviews help in increasing the productivity and improve organizational success. • Purpose : to find out the feasibility of the project and helping mgmt. team to take a decision based on the review • Checking out all necessary / formal activities, agreements and deviation. | | <document classification>

  32. Types of Reviews: • Initiation Reviews (IR) • Planning and Proposal reviews (PPR) • Procurement Reviews (PR) • Quality Assurance Reviews (QAR) | | <document classification>

  33. Qualities of Project Manager : • Enthusiasm • High tolerance for ambiguity • High coalition and team building skills • Client / customer orientation • Business orientation | | <document classification>

  34. Project Development Process cycle: The stages in Development process are : • Obtaining the sepecifications • Preparing a comprehensive PERT chart • Creating a work breakdown structure • Forming groups and teams • Fixing the responsibility areas • Preparing budgets, supplier contracts • Setting up communication channels, feedback routes and monitoring mechanisms | | <document classification>

  35. Modern Trends in Project Mgmt. Perception: • Continuous business process Improvements • Force-field analysis • Information risk mgmt. • ISO certification | | <document classification>

  36. Recent Revolutions in Project Mgmt.: • Information technology • Automation of Physical work • Workplace Flexibility • Elimination of traditional jobs & work structures • Globalization of markets, supplies and workforce • Domination of knowledge holders | | <document classification>

  37. What do you mean by organizational structure change? Organizational structure change means discussing organizational issues by sharing knowledge and experience among teams for effective economy both of physical resource and time. - Implementing changed practices as each organization will have structures, hierarchies, functions, communications, patterns, decision center and most importantly culture which define them and make them unique. | | <document classification>

  38. Important Terms : • Reengineering : this is a process by which managers redesign a bundle of tasks into roles and functions so that organizational effectiveness is achieved • E-Engineering: attempts of companies to make use of all kind of information system , to make their functions efficient. New information system are installed for conducting all business process in the organization. • Restructuring: this is attempted with change in authority and task relationships of managers. | | <document classification>

  39. Innovation : it is the successful use of skills and resources in such a way that their response to customer’s needs to be effective. Changes in technology have made computers cheaper , faster and more user friendly. | | <document classification>

  40. Traits of Professional manager • Leadership • People Relationship • Integrity • Quality • Customer orientation • Innovation and creativity • Performance Mgmt. | | <document classification>

  41. Performance Mgmt. : • The professional manager not only ensures that his performance is at peak all times but motivates his entire team to do it. This comes by appreciation and encouragement | | <document classification>

  42. Steps of Performance Mgmt: • Objectives / performance standards are set • These are communicated to the emp • Review / Monitor the above • Check actual performance vs standards set • Identify gaps • Jointly decide on corrective action, if needed • Reset objectives for next period • Identification with the organization • Empowering employee • Coping with changes | | <document classification>

  43. What is P2M? P2M stands for Project & Program Mgmt. means we need to monitor each project as such and make a programme to manage them as a group to take the advantages and be prepared to manage diversity is called P2M P2M leads the organization on the path of ‘where it ’ and ‘where it wants to be’ | | <document classification>

  44. Process of P2M : Preparing and maintaining a set of activities and the workflow that is to be followed and identifying business areas responsible for different stages in the above : • Making sure that the priorities that the above generate are relevant and the projects are run on the basis of their impact on the business as a whole. • Structuring the programme so that responsibilities and roles - at both programme and project level are acceptable to both the top mgmt. and managers • Planning the various points of review between various phases of the projects | | <document classification>

  45. Rules to make Strong Oraganization • Identify the critical technologies and a make a deliberated choice for indigenous development • Always aim one step higher in performance • Focus on Multi-use technologies • Spot the competence of division and empower them for tech. Development • Ensure Redundancy for critical systems and technologies | | <document classification>

  46. 6. Focus efforts through programme/project/mission oriented approach 7. Build concurrency into every activity 8. Build long term partnership with all the stake holders 9. Focus on problem forecasting and prevention 10. Ensure continuous and integrated performance measurement. | | <document classification>

  47. New horizons / perspectivein Project Mgmt. • Readiness to accept discontinuity and be flexible to changes • Solving problems by owning them and sharing solutions • Breaking the status-quo Mentality • Stepping out of comfortable zone • Human capital by-passing financial • Transform work culture | | <document classification>

  48. 7. Meaningful encounters more important than years of experience 8. Seeking meaning out of change 9. Emotional intelligence 10.standardization or work | | <document classification>

  49. What is the role of Data Mgmt? - The role of effective data mgmt. in the success of project mgmt. consists of conducting activities which facilitate in acquiring data processing at and distributing it. • Acquisition of data is the primary function. • Data to be useful should have 3-important characteristics- relevancy, sufficiency and timeliness. | | <document classification>

  50. it will have data about customers, suppliers, market, new technology, opportunities, human resources, economic activities, govt. regulations all of which affect the way we function. | | <document classification>