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Exercise Science. Exercise Physiology. Exercise Physiology. Exercise Physiology – the physiological responses that occur in the body during exercise. We will also discuss how these responses can be manipulated and trained to elicit desired results and benefits. Exercise Physiology.

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Exercise science

Exercise Science

Exercise Physiology


Exercise physiology
Exercise Physiology

Exercise Physiology – the physiological responses that occur in the body during exercise. We will also discuss how these responses can be manipulated and trained to elicit desired results and benefits


Exercise physiology1
Exercise Physiology

Exercise Principles

  • Consistency - (most important)

  • Progression

  • Overload

  • Specificity

  • Reversibility


Exercise physiology2
Exercise Physiology

Components of Health Related Fitness

  • Cardiorespiratory


Exercise physiology3
Exercise Physiology

  • Muscular Strength


Exercise physiology4
Exercise Physiology

  • Muscular Endurance (conditioning)


Exercise physiology5
Exercise Physiology

  • Flexibility


Exercise physiology6
Exercise Physiology

  • Body Composition



Exercise physiology8
Exercise Physiology

Physiology of the Cardiorespiratory System

Components of Cardiorespiratory System:

  • Heart

  • Lungs

  • Vessels (arteries, veins, capillaries)

  • Blood

    Cardiac Cycle:

  • Systole

  • Diastole


Exercise physiology9
Exercise Physiology

Physiology of the Cardiorespiratory System

  • Vocabulary

    • Heart Rate (RHR, Ex HR)

    • Stroke Volume

    • Cardiac Output (SV x HR = CO)

    • Ejection Fraction

    • Ischemia

      • Angina Pectoris (heart)

      • Myocardial Infarction (heart)

      • Cerebral Vascular Accident (Brain) …Stroke…


Exercise physiology10
Exercise Physiology

General Training Effects (CV)

  • VO2max – Intake, Delivery, UTILIZATION of O2

  • Lungs – External, Internal & Cellular respiration

  • Heart – SV, HR, CO, EF

    Metabolism

  • Anaerobic Metabolism – the productions of energy within the body in the absence of O2

  • Aerobic Metabolism – the production of energy within the body in the presence of O2


Exercise physiology11
Exercise Physiology

Fuel Sources

  • Glucose (4Kcals/g) most utilized

    • Glycogen – stored form of glucose

  • Fat (9Kcals/g) most caloricaly dense

  • Protein (4Kcals/g)


Exercise physiology12
Exercise Physiology

Anaerobic Metabolism

(-O2)

Outside Mitochondria

Lactic Acid (waste)

Anaerobic Enzymes

-O2

+O2

Energy

(2 ATP)


Aerobic Metabolism

Anaerobic Metabolism

+O2

-O2

Inside Mitochondria

Outside Mitochondria

Lactic Acid

(waste)

Anaerobic Enzymes

-O2

+O2

(waste)

Energy

(2 ATP)

ENERGY

(36 ATP)

Beta Oxidation

(Fat Metabolism)


Exercise physiology13
Exercise Physiology

Mechanical Adaptations to the Cardiorespiratory System due to Aerobic Activity

  • Increase Lung Function

    • Increase ability of external respiration

    • Increase ability of internal respiration

    • Increase ability of cellular respiration

  • Increase Cardiac Efficiency

    • Decrease Heart Rate at any given workload

    • Increase Stroke Volume

    • Increase Ejection Fraction

    • Increase Cardiac Output

    • Increase Capillarization

  • Increase VO2 Max


  • Exercise physiology14
    Exercise Physiology

    Physiological Adaptations to the Cardiorespiratory System due to Aerobic Activity

    • Increase ability of cellular respiration

    • Increase quantity of Anaerobic & Aerobic enzymes

    • Increase glycogen storage

    • Increase accessibility to glucose

    • Increase fat utilization

    • Decrease the production rate of lactic acid

    • Increase the tolerance to lactic acid (anaerobic threshold)

    • Increase Mitochondria density (# & Size)

    • Increase VO2 Max


    Exercise physiology15
    Exercise Physiology

    Metabolic Equivalent – 3.5ml/kg/min

    F. I. T. T. Principle

    • Frequency

    • Intensity

    • Type

    • Time


    Exercise physiology16
    Exercise Physiology

    Cardiorespiratory Miscellaneous Items…

    • Benefits of Regular Aerobic Activity

    • Effects of Environment

      • Altitude

      • Heat

      • Cold


    Exercise physiology17
    Exercise Physiology

    Skeletal Muscle Anatomy & Physiology


    Exercise physiology18
    Exercise Physiology

    Necessary Elements of Skeletal Muscle Contraction

    • Nervous Impulse

    • Energy (ATP)

    • O2 (if sustained)


    Exercise physiology19
    Exercise Physiology

    Sliding Filament Theory


    Exercise physiology20
    Exercise Physiology

    Sliding Filament Theory Cont…


    Exercise physiology21
    Exercise Physiology

    • Muscle Contraction – ALL or NOTHING

    • Force Generation of Muscular Contraction

      • Muscle Size

      • # of Contracting Fibers

      • Motor Unit Recruitment

      • Length Tension Relationship

  • Isometric Contraction

  • Isotonic

    • Concentric

    • Eccentric

  • Isokinetic


  • Exercise physiology22
    Exercise Physiology

    • Muscle Fiber Type

      • Slow Twitch (Type 1, Red Fibers, Oxidative Fibers)

      • Fast Twitch (Type II, White Fibers, Glycolitic Fibers)

      • Fiber Distribution – Genetic? Or Trainable?

      • Hypertrophy vs. Hyperplasia

        • Hypertrophy – increase in muscle fiber size

        • Hyperplasia – increase in # of muscle fibers


    Exercise physiology23
    Exercise Physiology

    Mechanical Adaptations of Skeletal Muscle to Resistive Training

    • Increase Cross-sectional area

    • Increase Tensile Strength of Muscle & Connective Tissue

    • Increase Motor Unit recruitment

    • Decrease Nervous Inhibition

    • Increase Neural Control

    • Decrease Repair Time


    Exercise physiology24
    Exercise Physiology

    Physiological Adaptations of Skeletal Muscle to Resistive Training

    • Increased Actin & Myosin

    • Increased # of Cross-Bridges

    • Decrease Nervous Inhibition

    • Increased Anaerobic Enzymes

    • Increased Mitochondrial Density (# & size)

    • Increased Anaerobic Threshold


    Exercise physiology25
    Exercise Physiology

    • Golgi Tendon Organ

      • Sensor – Prevents too much force production


    Exercise physiology26
    Exercise Physiology

    • Musculotendonis Unit


    Exercise physiology27
    Exercise Physiology

    • Muscle Sorness

      • Immediate Onset

      • Delayed Muscle Soreness


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