Introduction to exercise science
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Introduction to Exercise Science. KNR 164. A Profession Defined (but not limited to).

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A profession defined but not limited to
A Profession Defined(but not limited to)

  • Skill based on theoretical knowledge: Professionals are assumed to have extensive theoretical knowledge (e.g. architecture, medicine, law, scripture) and to possess skills based on that knowledge that they are able to apply in practice.

  • Professional association: Professions usually have professional bodies organized by their members, which are intended to enhance the status of their members and have carefully controlled entrance requirements.

  • Extensive period of education: The most prestigious professions usually require at least three years at university.

  • Testing of competence: Before being admitted to membership of a professional body, there is a requirement to pass prescribed examinations that are based on mainly theoretical knowledge.

  • Institutional training: In addition to examinations, there is usually a requirement for a long period of institutionalized training where aspiring professionals acquire specified practical experience in some sort of trainee role before being recognized as a full member of a professional body. Continuous upgrading of skills through professional development (CEU) is also mandatory these days.

A profession defined but not limited to1
A Profession Defined(but not limited to)

  • Licensed practitioners: Professions seek to establish a register or membership so that only those individuals so licensed are recognized as bona fide.

  • Work autonomy: Professionals tend to retain control over their work, even when they are employed outside the profession in commercial or public organizations. They have also gained control over their own theoretical knowledge.

  • Code of professional conduct or ethics: Professional bodies usually have codes of conduct or ethics for their members and disciplinary procedures for those who infringe the rules.

  • Self-regulation: Professional bodies tend to insist that they should be self-regulating and independent from government. Professions tend to be policed and regulated by senior, respected practitioners and the most highly qualified members of the profession,

  • Public service and altruism: The earning of fees for services rendered can be defended because they are provided in the public interest, e.g. the work of doctors contributes to public health.

Is ES a Profession?

Basic definition of exercise science es
Basic Definition of Exercise Science (ES)

  • ES is an academic discipline or field devoted to the study and understanding of human movement

  • ES “refers to the application of science to the phenomenon of exercise” (Brown, 2001, p. 6)

    • exercise refers primarily to voluntary and intentional human movement (e.g., structured exercise, leisure-time and lifestyle physical activity, sport, skilled movement)

    • application of science refers to fact that ES uses scientific principles from many parent disciplines and rigorous scientific inquiry within sub disciplines to develop knowledge about movement

Subdisciplines of es
Subdisciplines of ES

  • ES requires contributions from many subdisciplines

  • “movement” is explored scientifically from every conceivable vantage point through the subdisciplines

  • these are the “science” components of ES within which the body of knowledge is described, studied, and expanded

  • together this knowledge makes up ES

Subdisciplines of es1
Subdisciplines of ES

  • exercise physiology and biochemistry

  • biomechanics

  • motor learning and control

  • sports medicine

  • exercise and sport psychology

Other Distinctions (e.g., Kamen, 2001)

Initial common subdisciplines of ES

Subdisciplines of es kinesiology
Subdisciplines of ES (Kinesiology)

  • exercise physiology

  • clinical exercise physiology

  • nutrition

  • motor control and learning

  • psychology

  • biomechanics

  • athletic training and sports medicine

According to Pottieger ( 2011)

Subdisciplines of es2
Subdisciplines of ES

  • exercise physiology

  • sport nutrition

  • epidemiology

  • clinical exercise physiology

  • clinical biomechanics

  • sport biomechanics

  • athletic training

  • exercise and sport psych

  • motor behavior

  • sport history

  • sport sociology

According to Brown (2001)

Current common subdisciplines of ES

Important points
Important Points

  • no consensus on which sub disciplines count

  • other possible sub-disciplines include: sports literature, sports art, exercise biochemistry, sports physiology, sport pedagogy (physical education), adapted physical education, sports management

  • key is that any area of study (discipline or sub discipline) that can add to understanding of movement is valuable to ES (see Figure 1-2)

Discipline name
Discipline Name?

  • debate over past 20 years about the proper name for the field

  • examples include:

    • exercise and sport sciences

    • movement sciences

    • kinesiology

    • exercise science

    • human performance

    • movement and sport sciences

Organization at illinois state university
Organization at Illinois State University

School ofKinesiology and Recreation

  • Majors:

  • Athletic Training

  • Exercise Science

  • Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE)

  • Major:

  • Recreation and Park Administration (RPA)

    • Sequences (within RPA):

    • Recreation Management

    • Therapeutic Recreation

Exercise science vs physical education
Exercise Science vs. Physical Education

Exercise Science

Physical Education

  • Discipline devoted to the scientific study of human movement

  • Discipline devoted to investigating how the teaching process can be most effectively used to acquire motor skills

Illustration of Differences


Important points1
Important Points

  • sister disciplines

  • both interested in movement

  • distinct research topics

Important points adaptation growth
Important Points – adaptation/growth

  • Adaptation:

    • ES as a whole and the individual subdisciplines are constantly undergoing change (e.g., sport and exercise psychology)

  • Growth:

    • emerging consensus of physical activity as a key “health behavior” should benefit field

Exercise science as a profession
Exercise Science as a Profession

  • characteristic of an occupation

  • workers in a “professional” role…

    • master complex skills that are grounded in and guided by systematic theory and research

    • perform services for others known as clients or patients

    • are granted a monopoly by the community to supply certain services to its members

    • are guided by formal and informal ethical codes intended to preserve the health and well-being of the clients

  • ranges on a continuum

Exercise science as a profession1
Exercise Science as a Profession

  • Criteria for a “profession”

    • intellectual pursuit and responsible actions

    • knowledge base derived from science and research

    • practice involves the use of practical skills – not solely academic skills

    • representative professional organization

    • high level of communication within members of good standing

    • altruism

Flexner as cited in Brown (2001)

Es professionals should know
ES Professionals Should Know…

  • what a profession is

  • the type of work professionals do

  • how one gains entry to and acceptance in a profession

  • the obligations of professionals

  • the most important factors to consider in preparing for a career in the ES–related professions

Training exercise science professionals
Training Exercise Science Professionals

  • typically within liberal arts and sciences

  • course work in physical activity

  • course work in theoretical and applied theoretical knowledge in exercise science and kinesiology

  • course work in professional practice knowledge and skills for particular professions

  • internship experiences at the worksite

Exercise science at isu history
Exercise Science at ISU - History

  • Was part of physical education.

  • First appeared as a sequence called Fitness Leadership

  • Then became sequence called Exercise Science and Fitness

  • Finally in 2003, became stand alone Exercise Science major.

Exercise science at isu until fall 2014
Exercise Science at ISU (until Fall 2014)

  • ISU general education requirements

  • kinesiology core

  • major coursework

  • professional practice (internships) experiences

  • cognate hours

Exercise science at isu
Exercise Science at ISU

  • Kinesiology Core (20 hrs.)

    • KNR 181 – Human anatomy and physiology – I

    • KNR 182 – Human anatomy and physiology – II

    • KNR 240 – Principles and applications of fitness

    • KNR 254 – Social-psychological perspectives of PA

    • KNR 257 – Motor learning and performance

    • KNR 280 – Exercise physiology

    • KNR 282 – Biomechanics of human movement

Exercise science at isu1
Exercise Science at ISU

  • Major Course Work (18 hrs.)

    • KNR 164 – Introduction to exercise science

    • KNR 154.40 – Stress management instructional methods

    • KNR 285 – Resistance training instructional methods

    • KNR 286 – Group exercise instructional methods

    • KNR 307 – Exercise in health and disease

    • KNR 308 – Exercise programming

    • KNR 309 – Principles & techniques in physiological testing

    • KNR 310 – Fitness management

Exercise science at isu2
Exercise Science at ISU

  • Major Course Work – Professional Practice

    • KNR 298.10 – Professional Practice (2 hrs)

      • general students

      • pre-professional students

    • KNR 378.10 – Seminar in Professional Practice (2 hrs)

    • KNR 398.11 – Professional Practice Internship (10 hrs)

      • general students

      • pre-professional students

Exercise science at isu starting in fall 2014
Exercise Science at ISU (starting in Fall 2014)

Exercise science at isu3
Exercise Science at ISU

  • Practical Experience

Exercise science at isu4
Exercise Science at ISU

  • Examples of Senior Internship Sites

    • Steadman-Hawkins Clinic (Vail, Frisco, CO)

    • Institute for Aerobics Research (Cooper Institute, Dallas TX)

    • Kennedy Space Center (Orlando, FL)

    • Sears, Kraft, East Bank Health Clubs

    • Chicago Bears, Chicago Cubs

    • US Olympic Training Center (Colorado Springs, CO)

    • American Heart Association (Dallas, TX, & others)

Exercise science at isu5
Exercise Science at ISU

  • Cognate Area (15 hrs.)

    • Pre-professional (PT, OT, Chiropractic)

    • Biomechanics

    • Clinical (diseased populations)

    • Nutrition

    • Sport and exercise psychology

    • Technology

    • Administration/Business

    • Aging

    • Research

Disciplinary vs professional concerns
Disciplinary vs. Professional Concerns

Disciplinary Concerns

  • Discipline – function is to develop a coherent body of knowledge that describes, explains, and predicts key phenomenon

  • Profession – function is to improve conditions of society by providing regulated services in accordance with the knowledge available from one or more disciplines

Exercise Science Discipline

Development of facts, theories, principles, and laws

Exercise Science Professions

Provides questions, problems, observations, needs, and confirmations

Professional Concerns