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Trinidad Ashley Bisek and Stephanie Ranzau Trinidad and Tobago form the two southernmost links to the Caribbean chain Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Island state of the West Indies Capitol: Port of Spain National bird: scarlet ibis Official language: English

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Ashley Bisek and Stephanie Ranzau

republic of trinidad and tobago
Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
  • Island state of the West Indies
  • Capitol: Port of Spain
  • National bird: scarlet ibis
  • Official language: English
  • Government: Parliamentary Democracy
  • President: Maxwell Richards
  • Prime Minister: Patrick Manning
  • Population: 1,056,608 (as of 2007 estimate)
  • Member of the Commonwealth of Nations
people 2007 estimates unless indicated otherwise
Median age: 31.8

Growth rate: -.883%

Birth rate: 13.07/1,000

Death rate: 10.76/1,000

Life expectancy: 66.85

Women: 67.87

Men: 65.87

1.74 children born/woman

Ethnicity (2000 census):

Indian: 40%

African: 37.5%

Mixed: 20.5%

Other: 1.2%

Unspecified: 0.8%

Religions (2000 census)

Roman Catholic: 26%

Hindu: 22.5%

Anglican: 7.8%

Baptist: 7.2%

Many others…

Languages: English (official), Caribbean Hindustani, French, Spanish, Chinese

Literacy rate (15 or older who can read and write): 98.6% (2003 estimate)

People(2007 estimates unless indicated otherwise)
trinidad s flag
Trinidad’s Flag
  • Adopted in 1962
  • Red represents the vitality of the land and the people, warmth and energy of the sun, and courage and friendliness.
  • The white represents the sea, the purity of national aspirations, and the equality of all men
  • The black represents strength, unity and purpose, and the natural resources
coat of arms
Coat of Arms
  • The three ships represent the Trinity and the three ships of Columbus that landed in Trinidad
  • Supporting birds and the two local birds: the scarlet ibis and the cocrico. Hummingbirds are also present on the shield.
  • The three peaks represent the Trinity and the three Peaks of the Southern mountain range, called the “Three Sisters“
  • Motto: Together we aspire, together we achieve.
geography 1
Geography 1
  • Trinidad: 1,841 sq. miles
  • Tobago: 115 sq. miles and is 32 miles long and 11 across.
  • Northern Range (continuation of Andes from Venezuela), Central range and Southern Range
  • Aripo Mt. is the highest peak in Trinidad, 3,084 feet
  • Many waterfalls in the Northern Range; biggest are the Blue Basin and the Maracas Falls, both 298 feet high
  • Southern Range: mainly low hills and is home to the “Three Sisters”
geography 2
Geography 2
  • Many short rivers
  • Longest river is Ortoire, 31 miles
  • Swamps
  • Oil belt – forms mud volcanoes
  • Devil’s Woodyard is the most popular mud volcano
  • Buccoo Reef: known for marine life and is popular for scuba diving and snorkeling
climate weather
  • Tropical climate; high relative humidity
  • Average minimum and maximum temperatures for year are 68-89 °F
  • Dry periods are from January to May and September to October
  • Trinidad is outside the main hurricane zone, but has been struck before (1867 and 1963)
plants animals and the environment
Plants, Animals and the Environment
  • Plants: mountain immortelle (flowering tree that grows to 80 feet) and the gold flowers of the poui, sugarcane
  • Animals: Paca, agouti, collared pecary, armadillo, porcupine, iguana, and caiman crocodiles
  • Forests are hunting grounds for small game
  • Current environmental issues: water pollution from agricultural chemicals, industry wastes and sewage, oil pollution of beaches, deforestation and soil erosion
  • Parliamentary Democracy headed by President Maxwell Richards (elected in 2003)
  • The Prime Minister is Patrick Manning (elected 2001)
  • First constitution written in 1962 called for British government to pick a governor-general
  • 1976 constitution: republic headed by elected president
  • Voting age is 18
economy 1
Economy 1
  • Main natural resources: petroleum, natural gas and asphalt.
  • Has one of the highest standards of living in the Caribbean because of oil revenue
  • Pitch Lake (southwestern coast) is the world’s largest natural reservoir of asphalt
  • Leading Caribbean producer of oil and gas
  • Petroleum industry dominates the economy, which allows for fluctuations due to the global oil market.
  • Oil production, land- and sea-based
  • Government trying to encourage diversification: less imports, other industries outside of petroleum
  • Tourism and manufacturing are a growing industry
  • Major agricultural exports are sugar, cocoa and coffee
  • Industries: petroleum, chemicals, tourism, food processing, cement, beverage, cotton textiles
  • Transshipment point for illicit drugs going from South America to the US and Europe. Trinidad and Tobago also produce marijuana
economy 2 2006 estimates
Economic growth went up 12.6% in 2006 because of high oil prices

GDP (purchasing power): $21.06 billion

GDP (official exchange rate): $14.87 billion

GDP per capita: $19,800

GDP: 0.7% agriculture, 59.8% industry, 39.4% services

Unemployment rate: 7%

Population below poverty line: 21%

Inflation: 8.3%

Exports: $12.1 billion

Petroleum/products, chemicals, steel products, fertilizer, sugar, coffee, citrus, flowers

Imports: $6.843 billion

Machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods, food, live animals

Trade partners: US, Bermuda, Jamaica, Spain, Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia

Exchange rate: Trinidad and Tobago dollar per US dollar: 6.31

Economy 2 (2006 estimates)
  • Free at primary and secondary levels
  • Compulsory between ages 6 and 12
  • Shortage of schools (especially secondary) for growing student population
  • University of West Indies and three technical institutes are the main higher-education schools
  • Known for its steel band and calypso music as well as limbo
  • Annual carnival celebrations
  • Cricket is the most popular sport
  • Major holidays:
    • Indian Revival Day: May 30th, commemorates the first arrival from India to Trinidad on May 30th, 1845
    • Spiritual Baptist/Shouter Liberation Day: March 30th, commemorates the repeal on March 30th of 1951 of the 1917 Shouter Prohibition Ordinance that prohibited the activities of the Shouter or Spiritual Baptist faith
    • Emancipation day: August 1st, 1985, commemorates the abolition of slavery (
history 1
History 1
  • Arawakan and Carib tribal groups occupied island
  • 1498: Columbus arrived in on his third voyage
  • Plantations established by settlers in end of 16th century
  • 1802: Trinidad remained under Spanish rule (despite other European raids until 1802 when it was ceded to Britain. Tobago was passed between Britain and France several times.
  • 1838: Slavery ended, sugarcane industry crashed
  • 1845-1917: Immigration of indentured workers from India
  • 1889: Trinidad and Tobago were made a single colony
  • 1925: Partial self-government was instituted
  • 1958-1963: Was a part of the West Indies Federation
  • 1962: Gained independence and became a republic, but remained with the Commonwealth
  • 1970-1972: Tension between the East Indians and the blacks started riots and an army mutiny against the East Indians
history 2
History 2
  • 1956-1981: Eric Williams (the “Father of the Nation”) and leader pf the People’s National Movement (PNM) governed 1973-1981: Oil boom., rapid development
  • 1986: National Alliance for Reconstruction (NAR) held office
  • 1990: To protest the NAR government, 100 radical black Muslims blew up the police station in an attempted coup. The Prime Minister and other officials were held hostage for six days.
  • 1991: PNM returned to power
  • Original Trinidians “disappeared”
  • Heterogeneous population: Africa, Madeira, China, Syria, Lebanon, Venezuela, and the United Kingdom
  • 1991: PNM returned to power
  • 2003: Maxwell Richards, a university dean, was selected president by parliament
  • April 2006: former prime minister Panday was sentenced to two years in prison for committing fraud in public office.
interesting facts
Interesting Facts
  • First country to celebrate the abolition of slavery in the British Empire
  • The XXI Summer Olympic Games in 1975: Hasely Crawford became the first athlete from Trinidad & Tobago to win an Olympic gold medal for the 100 meter run.
  • Flag and Seal: CRW Flags
  • Government, People and Economy: CIA.gov
  • History: infoplease.com
  • Everything else: Encyclopedia Britannica