The End of the Cold War APUSH 3/29/07 Ms. Weston
The Election of President Carter • Ran against Republican Gerald Ford in 1976 • Ford unpopular because he had pardoned Nixon • Carter popular because he was so sincere and moral • At first very successful, got support of Congress • As an inexperienced outsider, he began to rub Congress the wrong way, by not following traditional protocol.
Carter’s Humanitarian Diplomacy • As a born-again Christian, Carter wanted to apply a concern for “human rights” to foreign policy • Camp David Accords (1978): Carter got Egypt and Israel to meet in US, came to an agreement for Israel to return land to Egypt and Egypt to respect Israel’s borders • Carter resumed full diplomatic relations with China • Passed two treaties turning control of Panama Canal to Panamanians by 2000. • Still, détente with the USSR appeared to be breaking down • Soviet and Cuban troops helped revolutionary movements in Africa • Arms control was failing
Carter Deals With the Energy Crisis • Massive inflation in late 1970s • Huge deficits in federal budget, interest rates high • Carter urged people to conserve energy, people were unwilling • In Iran, revolution ousted the Shah, installed a fundamentalist government that refused to sell oil to US • Oil prices rose even more, Carter seemed unable to deal with crisis.
The Iran Hostage Crisis • November 1969: Muslim militants took over US embassy in Iran, and took all of its occupants hostage • Muslims angry that the US had allowed the former Shah to come to America for medical treatment • Events in Middle East worsened when Soviets sent troops to Afghanistan • US called for embargo against USSR, boycott of Olympic Games in Moscow, end to SALT II treaty • Iranian Hostage Crisis led to end of Carter • Tried to use economic sanctions and pressure against Iranians • Rescue mission failed
Reagan Renews the Cold War • Elected in 1980 • Republican candidate ran against then unpopular Carter • Used harsh words against USSR “focus of evil” in world • Wanted to increase US military capabilities so he could threaten the weakened Soviets with power
Star Wars • Reagan was gambling that his building up of military would lead Soviets to back down • 1983 announced plan for Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) nicknamed “Star Wars” • Called for orbiting battle stations in space that could fire at incoming missiles • Like a huge defense shield over US cities • Relations with Soviets worsened as US imposed sanctions on Poland, and a Korean plane with Americans aboard was shot down from over USSR • 1984: Soviet athletes boycotted Olympics in Los Angeles
Continued Troubles Abroad • Iranians did agree to release of hostages, Reagan got all the credit • Israel took over more land and invaded Lebanon • US sent troops to try to help Lebanon, ended in disaster • None of this hurt Reagan’s popularity “TEFLON PRESIDENT”
Election of 1984 • Reagan ran against Democrat Walter Mondale • Mondale first to run female v.p. • Reagan won in landslide because strong economy at home and the way he stood up to the Soviets • Reagan’s second term more focused on foreign policy • In USSR, Mikhail Gorbachev began reforms • Glasnost “openness,” some freedom of speech • Perestroika—some free market competition • Began successful summit talks with Reagan to eliminate intermediate range nuclear weapons in Europe.
The Iran-Contra Scandal • Reagan worried about hostages in Lebanon and the left-wing Sandinista government in Nicaragua • Worked out a secret plan to sell weapons to Iran who would help US get hostages released. Meanwhile money from these weapons would be given to the contras in Nicaragua to help get rid of the Sandinistas. • Reagan totally violated Congress’s ban on aid to Nicaragua • News of secret dealings broke in 1986. Made Reagan seem careless and unintelligent. • In end, Reagan still one of most popular presidents in American history.
President Bush and the End of the Cold War • Republican Bush elected in 1990. • Privileged background, but much experience in service. • Late 1980s-early 90s: Democracy arriving in communist world • Demonstrations at China’s Tiananmen square • Solidarity movement ended Communism in Poland • Communist regimes collapsed in Hungary, Czech, and East Germany • Destroyed the Berlin Wall
Bush and the End of the Cold War ctnd. • In USSR, communist old-guards failed in their attempt to overthrow Gorbachev. • Weakened, Gorbachev resigned, Boris Yeltsin took over as President. • Soviet Union broke down into 15 republics: all democratic and capitalist. • Bush declares a “new world order” where everyone would be democracy and work out problems peacefully • Idea of “end of history” where ideological battles gone
Persian Gulf Crisis • 1990: Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait, a tiny oil-rich country bordering Iraq • Motivated by oil and control of Persian Gulf • US had helped Saddam against Iran in 1980s • UN warned Saddam Hussein to leave Kuwait, threatened him with embargo and he refused • US led an international force into Iraq and Kuwait • All volunteer US army • US general Norman Schwarzkopf led heavy bombings of Iraq along with ground troops to force surrender. • After four days, Iraq surrendered. • Still, Saddam in power. Still trouble in Middle East.