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Temperature. Temperature Air Temperature Temperature Structure of the Atmosphere The Annual Cycle of Air Temperature World Patterns of Air Temperature Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect. Temperature. A measure of the level of sensible heat of matter

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temperature
Temperature
  • Temperature
  • Air Temperature
  • Temperature Structure of the Atmosphere
  • The Annual Cycle of Air Temperature
  • World Patterns of Air Temperature
  • Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect
temperature2
Temperature
  • A measure of the level of sensible heat of matter
  • Determined by the balance of energy flows
slide3

Temperature

United States scale Vs The rest of the World

temperature4
Temperature
  • Temperature
  • Air Temperature
  • Temperature Structure of the Atmosphere
  • The Annual Cycle of Air Temperature
  • World Patterns of Air Temperature
  • Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect
slide5

Five key factors influence Air Temperature

Insolation - daily and seasonal variations

Latitude - also daily and seasonal variations, and energy deficit

Surface type - albedo of surface as well as surface moisture

Location (coastal vs. interior) - temperature range is lower at coasts

Elevation - thinner atmosphere means less greenhouse effect

slide6

Air Temperature – Daily Cycle of Insolation

  • Insolation varies with time of day, season and location
  • During the day Insolation is positive, During the night it is negative
  • Net Radiation- the balance between incoming and outgoing radiation
slide7

Air Temperature – Daily Cycle of Net Radiation

  • When net radiation is
  • Positive (surplus) a surface gains heat
  • when net radiation is negative (deficit) a surface loses heat
slide8

Air Temperature – Daily Cycle of Temperature

  • Positive net radiation leads to an increase in temperature
  • (notice that there is a time lag)
slide9

Air Temperature – The Urban Heat Island

  • Water is channeled so surfaces tend to be dry
  • Surfaces are often dark (asphalt)
  • Building materials store heat, and heat is released from buildings
slide10

Cooler Temperatures - rural areas

  • Transpiration (or evaporation from leaves) cools the surface and the air around the plant
  • Evaporation from moist soils also cools the area
      • These two combined = Evapotranspiration
slide11

The Annual Cycle of Air Temperature

Location: Land and Water Contrasts

  • Land heats and cools quickly while water heats and cools slowly

Figure 3.15, p. 101

slide12

The Annual Cycle of Air Temperature: Land and Water Contrasts

  • Maritime locations experience a smaller
  • annual range of
  • temperature (maritime climates)
  • Continental locations experience a larger
  • annual range of
  • temperature (continental climates)
slide13

Elevation and Temperature

  • Generally temperatures drop with altitude
  • Daily temperature range also increases
temperature15
Temperature
  • Temperature
  • Air Temperature
  • Temperature Structure of the Atmosphere
  • The Annual Cycle of Air Temperature
  • World Patterns of Air Temperature
  • Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect
slide16

Temperature Structure of the Atmosphere

Heat is transferred through the atmosphere by:

Conduction (direct heat transfer from the heated ground surface to the atmosphere)

Convection (heat transfer by warm air moving to colder upper atmosphere)

Advection (heat transfer by warm air mixing with colder adjacent air)

temperature structure of the atmosphere

Atmosphere = gaseous envelope surrounding the Earth

  • Made up of a series of layers
  • Atmosphere is held down by gravity
  • Most of the atmosphere’s mass is near the surface

Temperature Structure of the Atmosphere

temperature structure of the atmosphere19
Temperature Structure of the Atmosphere
  • The atmosphere is largely warmed from below
  • Thus the farther away the air is from the surface the colder it will be.
  • The decrease in air temperature with the increase in altitude is called the environmentallapse rate
temperature21
Temperature
  • Temperature
  • Air Temperature
  • Temperature Structure of the Atmosphere
  • The Annual Cycle of Air Temperature
  • World Patterns of Air Temperature
  • Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect
slide22

Net Radiation and Temperature

  • Tilt of earth causes annual variation in insolation Which causes annual cycle of net radiation Which causes annual cycle of air temperatures.
  • Varying by latitude and location:
  • As latitude increases temperature range increases
temperature23
Temperature
  • Temperature
  • Air Temperature
  • Temperature Structure of the Atmosphere
  • The Annual Cycle of Air Temperature
  • World Patterns of Air Temperature
world patterns of air temperature
World Patterns of Air Temperature

Isothermal Map

  • Distribution of air temperatures shown on a map use isotherms (lines of equal temperature)
  • Reveals centers of low or high temperatures, and temperature gradients
world patterns of air temperature26
World Patterns of Air Temperature

Air Temperature patterns are determined by:

Latitude- as latitude increases annual insolation decreases (temperatures decrease from the equator to the poles)

2. Elevation- higher elevations have cooler temps.

slide27

3. Principle of continentality: coastal areas have more uniform temps while inland locations show a much larger variation in annual temperature