respiration l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
RESPIRATION PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
RESPIRATION

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 25

RESPIRATION - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 233 Views
  • Uploaded on

RESPIRATION. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL. INTERNAL RESPIRATION. CELLULAR METABOLISM ANAEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS AEROBIC OXIDATIVE METABOLISM IN THE MITOCHONDRIA. EXTERNAL RESPIRATION. Ventilation or breathing: air moved in and out of lungs Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide exchange in the lungs

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'RESPIRATION' - jana


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
respiration

RESPIRATION

INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL

internal respiration
INTERNAL RESPIRATION
  • CELLULAR METABOLISM
  • ANAEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS
  • AEROBIC OXIDATIVE METABOLISM IN THE MITOCHONDRIA
external respiration
EXTERNAL RESPIRATION
  • Ventilation or breathing: air moved in and out of lungs
  • Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide exchange in the lungs
  • Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide transported by blood to and from tissues
  • Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide between tissue and blood
external and internal respiration
EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL RESPIRATION

TISSUE

CELL

O2 + FOOD

ATMOSPHERE

SYSTEMIC

CIRCULATION

HEART

PULMONARY

CIRULATION

LUNGS

CO2 + H2O

+ ATP

the respiratory system
THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
  • Nasal Passages
  • Mouth
  • Pharynx
  • Larynx
  • Trachea
  • Bronchi
  • Alveoli
  • Lung
alveoli
Alveoli
  • Small, thin walled, inflatable sacs at end of bronchioles
  • Surrounded by jacket of pulmonary capillaries
  • Provide thin barrier and enormous surface area for gas exchange by diffusion
  • Type II secrete surfactant
respiration8

RESPIRATION

The Mechanics of Breathing

pressures at rest
PRESSURES AT REST
  • Atmospheric pressure: 760 mm Hg
  • Intra-alveolar pressure: 760 mm Hg
  • Intrapleural pressure: 756 mm Hg
barometric pressure
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE

VACUUM

760 mm

WEIGHT OF COLUMN

OF AIR = FORCE

FORCE/AREA = PRESSURE

Sea Level

Mercury Hg

rest pressures
REST PRESSURES

Atmosphere

Airways

760 MM Hg

Intrapleural pressure

Pleural Sac

756 mmHg

Thoracic

Wall

Lungs

the transmural pressure gradient inflates the lungs
THE TRANSMURAL PRESSURE GRADIENT INFLATES THE LUNGS
  • Thoracic cavity larger than lungs
  • Transmural (Across Lung Wall) pressure gradient holds thoracic wall and lungs in close apposition
  • This pressure gradient is balanced by the elastic forces in the alveoli producing equilibrium
rest pressures13
REST PRESSURES

Atmosphere

Airways

760 MM Hg

Intrapleural pressure

Pleural Sac

756 mmHg

Thoracic

Wall

Lungs

air is a compressable gas which obeys boyle s law
AIR IS A COMPRESSABLE GAS WHICH OBEYS BOYLE’S LAW
  • P1V1 = P2V2
  • If Volume increases, Pressure must decrease
  • As lungs expand, pressure inside falls
inspiration
INSPIRATION
  • Elevation of ribs expands lungs
  • Lowering of diaphragm by contraction also expands lungs
  • Expansion of lungs causes pressure inside to drop below atmospheric pressure
  • Air rushes in to fill the expanded lungs
inspiration16
INSPIRATION

Atmosphere

Airways

760 mm Hg

759mm Hg

Intrapleural pressure

Pleural Sac

754 mmHg

Thoracic

Wall

Lungs

expiration
EXPIRATION
  • Return of ribs to rest position causes diminishing of lung volume
  • Return of diaphragm to rest position also causes diminishing of lung volume
  • Diminishing of lung volume causes pressure in lung to raise to a higher value than atmospheric pressure
  • Air flows out of the lungs
expiration18
EXPIRATION

Atmosphere

760 mm Hg

Airways

761 mm Hg

Intrapleural pressure

Pleural Sac

756 mmHg

Thoracic

Wall

Lungs

muscles of inspiration
MUSCLES OF INSPIRATION
  • Sternocleidomastoid
  • Scalenus
  • External Intercostals
  • Diaphragm
muscles of expiration
MUSCLES OF EXPIRATION
  • Internal intercostals
  • Abdominals
airway resistance
AIRWAY RESISTANCE
  • Flow of air depends on the pressure gradient (atmospheric, Pa, and intra-alveolar, Pi) and the airway resistance, R
  • F = (Pa - Pi)/R
  • Resistance depends primarily on the radius of the conducting airways
  • Parasympathetic stimulation constricts, while sympathetic dilates
resistance and disease
Resistance and Disease
  • Colds
  • Asthma: Constriction of small airways, excess mucus, and histamine-induced edema
  • Bronchitis:Long term inflamitory response causing thickened walls and overproduction of mucous
  • Emphysema: Collapse of smaller airways and breakdown of alveolar walls
  • Alveolar surface tension
lung volumes
LUNG VOLUMES
  • Tidal Volume (TV): 500 ml
  • Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV): 3 liters
  • Inspiratory capacity (IC): 3.5 liters
  • Expiratory reserve volume (ERV): 1 liter
  • Residual volume (RV): 1.2 liters
  • Functional Residual Capacity (FRC): 2.2 l
  • Vital Capacity (VC): 4.5 liters
  • Total Lung Capacity (TLC): 5.7 liters
lung volumes relationships
LUNG VOLUMES: RELATIONSHIPS
  • IC = IRV + TV
  • FRC = ERV + RV
  • VC = IRV + TV + ERV
  • TLC = VC + RV