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PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS. DR. ARRA PSY 202. Psychological Disorders. Psychopathology – refers to patterns of thought, feeling, or behavior that disrupt a person’s sense of well-being or social or occupational functioning What is ‘normal’??? DSM - IV. Psychological Disorders.

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psychological disorders2
Psychological Disorders

Psychopathology – refers to patterns of thought, feeling, or behavior that disrupt a person’s sense of well-being or social or occupational functioning

  • What is ‘normal’???
  • DSM - IV
psychological disorders3
Psychological Disorders

Identifying Abnormal Behavior

  • Statistical Infrequency
  • Disability or Dysfunction
  • Personal Distress
  • Violation of Societal Norms
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Psychological Disorders

Insanity – legal term applied when people cannot be held responsible for their actions or allowed to manage their own affairs because of mental illness

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Psychological Disorders


  • Diathesis-stress model – people with an underlying predisposition (genetic) may become symptomatic under stressful circumstances
  • Systems approach – attempt to explain a person’s behavior in the context of the social group (family, couple, larger social system)
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Psychological Disorders
  • Family Systems Model – suggests that symptoms of an individual are really symptoms of dysfunction in a family
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Psychological Disorders


  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV
  • Published by the American Psychiatric Association
  • Basis for descriptive diagnosis
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Psychological Disorders
  • Axis I – clinical disorders
  • Axis II – personality disorders and MR
  • Axis III – relevant medical conditions
  • Axis IV – psychosocial and environmental problems
  • Axis V – Global assessment of functioning


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Psychological Disorders

How diagnosis occurs

  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Exclusionary Model
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Psychological Disorders

What assessment tools/techniques are used?

  • Clinical Interviews
  • Observations
  • Standardized Tests, Checklists, Questionnaires
  • Projectives/ Subjective Assessments
  • Medical history
  • School/Work history
  • Family history
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Psychological Disorders


  • ADHD
  • Schizophrenia

individuals loose touch with reality

+ symptoms = hallucinations, delusions

- symptoms = flat affect, poor social skills

highly genetic brain disease

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Psychological Disorders


  • Dysthymic Disorder
  • Major Depression
  • Bipolar
  • Phobias
  • OCD
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Psychological Disorders



Personality Disorders

  • Chronic and severe disturbances that inhibit the capacity to love and work
  • Enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individuals culture; is pervasive and inflexible
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Psychological Disorders
  • Paranoid Personality Disorder: a pattern of distrust and suspiciousness such that others’ motives are interpreted as malevolent
  • Schizoid Personality Disorder: a pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of emotional expression
  • Schizotypal Personality Disorder: a pattern of acute discomfort in close relationships, cognitive or perceptual distortions, and eccentricities in behavior
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Psychological Disorders
  • Antisocial Personality Disorder: a pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others
  • Borderline Personality Disorder: a pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, affects, and marked impulsivity
  • Histrionic Personality Disorder: a pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking
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Psychological Disorders
  • Narcissistic Personality Disorder: a pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and lack of empathy
  • Avoidant Personality Disorder: a pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation
  • Dependent Personality Disorder: a pattern of submissive and clinging behavior related to an excessive need to be taken care of
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Psychological Disorders
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder: a pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and control
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Psychological Disorders

Axis III – General Medical Conditions

Axis IV – Psychosocial and environmental problems

Axis V - Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF)


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Psychological Disorders

Dissociative Disorders

  • Characterized by disruptions in consciousness, memory, sense of identity, or perception of the environment
  • DID
  • Dissociative Fugue
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Psychological Disorders

Eating Disorders

  • Anorexia Nervosa – distorted body image; efforts to lose weight that lead to dangerously low body weight
  • Bulimia – characterized by a binge-purge syndrome
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Psychological Disorders

Disorders usually diagnosed in childhood or adolescence

  • ADHD
  • ODD
  • CD
  • Anxiety Disorders