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American animation. Early Disney, Ub Iwerks and contemporaries. Avant-garde and abstract film Ub Iwerks Walt Disney John Hubley Chuck Jones Douglas Crockwell Dwinell Grant Oskar Fischinger Douglas Crockwell (1904-1980?) 1904 born in Columbus, Ohio
1900 born in the German town of Gelnhausen, the fourth of six children.
1921 met the theater critic Bernhard Diebold, who introduced Fischinger to the work and personage of Walter Ruttmann, a pioneer in abstract film. Inspired by Ruttmann's work, Fischinger began experimenting with colored liquids and three-dimensional modeling materials such as wax and clay.
1924 hired by American entrepreneur Louis Seel to produce satirical cartoons that tended toward mature audiences. Made abstract films trying new and different techniques, including the use of multiple projectors.
1927 depart Munich for Berlin. Taking only his essential equipment, he walked 350 miles through the countryside, shooting single frames that became a film in itself: "Walking from Munich to Berlin.“
1928 set up a studio on Friedrichstrasse doing the special effects for various films.
1928 hired to work on Fritz Lang's space epic Frau im Mond
experimented with charcoal-on-paper animation a series of abstract Studies that were synchronized to popular and classical music. The Studies were well-received at art theaters and many were distributed to first-run theatres throughout Europe.
1927 Studie Nr. 5 screened at the "Congress for Colour-Music Research"
1931 Universal Pictures purchased distribution rights to Studie Nr. 5 for the American public, and Studie Nr. 7 screened as a short with a popular movie in Berlin.
1930s Muratti Greift Ein (Muratti Gets in the Act), and Kreise (Circles)
1935 Komposition in Blau
1936 moved to Hollywood where he was given an office at Paramount, German-speaking secretaries, an English tutor, and a weekly salary of $250. With no immediate assignment, Fischinger sketched and painted.
1937 Allegretto, tightly synchronized to Ralph Rainger's "Radio Dynamics."
All Fischinger's filmmaking attempts in America suffered difficulties. An Optical Poem to Liszt's "Second Hungarian Rhapsody" for MGM, but received no profits due to studio bookkeeping systems.
"Toccata and Fugue" to Bach
Bach's "Brandenburg Concert No. 3"
1949 Motion Painting No. 1 won the Grand Prix at the Brussels International Experimental Film Competition
1984 Olympiad of Animation's list of the world's greatest films
1950 invented the Lumigraph, (patented in 1955) which others have called a type of color organ.
1964 the Lumigraph was used in the science fiction film Time Travelers, in which it became a 'love machine' . Today the instrument is displayed at Deutsches Filmmuseum in Frankfurt, and is still played occasionally.
1901 born in Chicago Illinois, one of five children. Studied art and photography at the McKinley High School in Chicago.
1918 joined the Red Cross and was sent overseas to France, where he spent a year driving an ambulance and chauffeuring Red Cross officials.
Ub Iwerks (1901-1971)
1920 worked for Kansas City Film Ad company making one-minute, black and white commercials. Met Ub Iwerks and started a small company called Laugh-O-Grams.
1923 Laugh-O-Grams fell bankrupt. With his suitcase, and twenty dollars, Walt headed to Hollywood with Iwerks and his brother Roy. After making a success of his "Alice Comedies," Walt became a recognized Hollywood figure.
1928 silent Plan Crazy and Gallopin’ Gaucho with Mickey Mouse
1928 Steamboat Willie with dialog
1932 Flowers and Trees (the first color cartoon) won Walt the first of his studio's Academy Awards. Special agreement with Technicolor.
1937 The Old Mill, the first short subject to utilize the multi-plane camera technique.
1937 Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, the first full-length animated musical feature. Generated $1,499,000 during the depths of the Depression.
1938-1943 Walt Disney Studios completed other full-length animated classics such as Pinocchio, Fantasia, Dumbo, and Bambi.
1954 began television production and was among the first to present full-color programming with his Wonderful World of Color in 1961.
The Walt Disney Company, today has annual revenues of approximately US $30 billion.
"We allow no geniuses around our Studio.“
"I never called my work an 'art' It's part of show business, the business of building entertainment.“
"People still think of me as a cartoonist, but the only thing I lift a pen or pencil for these days is to sign a contract, a check, or an autograph.“
“I dream that one of my pictures ended up in an art house and I wake up shaking”
“It is culturally blind not to see that Disney was a forceful and, in his special way, imaginative worker in….the American business tradition. The only fitting honour to be paid him is to associate him firmly with it, and not with some artistic tradition what was fundamentally alien to him.”
21. Robin Hood, 1973.22. The Many Adventures Of Winnie The Pooh, 1977.23. The Rescuers, 1977.24. The Fox And The Hound, 1981.25. The Black Cauldron, 1985.26. The Great Mouse Detective, 1986.27. Oliver & Company, 1988.28. The Little Mermaid, 1989. After The Little Mermaid, Walt Disney Productions switched from hand drawing and painting their animation to a new computerized system, called "CAPS,"which stands for Computerized Animation Production System.
29. The Rescuers Down Under, 1990.30. Beauty And The Beast, 1991.31. Aladdin, 1992.32. The Lion King, 1994.33. Pocahontas, 1995.34. The Hunchback Of Notre Dame, 1996.35. Hercules, 1997.36. Mulan, 1998.37. Tarzan, 1999. (Released June 18th, 1999)…
1943 formed by Stephen Bosustow, John Hubley, Bill Hurtz, Pete Burness after leaving Disney as a reaction of highly individual artists seeking more freedom for creative expression.
Variety of styles
Moving from realism to a more appropriate cartoon medium
Animation that defied logic and reality for the sake of art
Columbia - Charles Mintz – Krazy Kat
Twentieth Century Fox- Paul Terry
Universal – Walter Lantz
Vitaphone (Warner Brothers) –Chuck Jones – Looney Tunes
1914 born in Wisconsin.
1936 worked at the Walt Disney Studios painting backgrounds and layouts for Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. He described his training as a great Renaissance workshop, where the apprentices learned from the masters.
an art director at Disney and designed layouts for Pinocchio, Bambi, Dumbo and the "Rites of Spring" sequence in Fantasia.1941 quit Disney Studios
1942 the U.S. government formed 18th Air Force Base Unit, also known as the First Motion Picture Unit (FMPU) in Culver City, California, to produce films used to train the troops during World War II. The animation unit produced hundreds of training films on a continuous schedule.
John Hubley, enlisted in the Army and was assigned to the FMPU.
The style that Hubley developed through his work at the FMPU was considered revolutionary.
1943 many ex-Disney artists regrouped at the new studio United Productions of America (UPA), where Hubley was a founder.
1947 the FBI began their quest to find Americans with Communist leanings. Hubley had been a political activist throughout his career. He'd participated in Hollywood stirikes and made films for labor unions. He and Bill Hurtz created the storyboard for Hell Bent for Election, made for the United Auto Workers and the CIO for the Roosevelt campaign. His political leanings made him an easy target of the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), and Walt Disney, a staunch anti-union conservative, had been a primary force in the blacklist. Columbia Studios, which commissioned UPA, was pressured by the Committee to supply them with a list of people who would be forced to leave UPA. Those who were named and those who refused to talk were blacklisted from the community.
1955 Hubley initially refused to testify, and when he did testify a year later, he refused to name names. Following his testimony, Hubley was blacklisted.
He began work on the animated version of Finian's Rainbow, with voices by Frank Sinatra and Ella Fitzgerald. When it was discovered that Hubley was directing the project, the backers pulled out their money and the project was summarily shut down.
1956 moved his independent animation studio Storyboard from Los Angeles to New York City. He used the name Storyboard because he couldn't use his own name and the studio did animated television commercials. Commercials were anonymous, so he was able to work. There he and his wife Faith worked on commissioned projects and produced 21 films together, three of which were Academy Award-winners. 1977 died during heart surgery
1912 born in Spokane Washignton.
1932 graduated from Chouinard Art Institute (now California Institute of the Arts.)
1936-1962 worked at the Leon Schlesinger Studio, later sold to Warner Bros., as an animator assigned to Tex Avery's animation unit.
1938 directed his first animated film "The Night Watchman.“
1955 worked on Sleeping Beauty at Disney Studios
1966 Head of the animation division at MGM Studios
1966 directed one of the most memorable holiday television specials ever produced -- "Dr. Seuss' How the Grinch Stole Christmas." Was met with glowing reviews from newspapers across the country and has since become one of the most beloved holiday programs on television.
1957 "What's Opera, Doc?"
1992 Academy Awards for his lifetime achievement in animation.
over 300 animated films in his career
three Academy Awards and has received countless awards and distinctions
exhibited at more than 150 galleries and museums throughout the world