Early abstract and commercial animation in America. John Randolf Bray Winsor McCay Max Fleischer Mary Ellen Bute Douglass Crockwell Dwinell Grant. John Randolph "J.R." Bray (1879 – 1978) . 1879 born in Addison, Michigan, began drawing as a youngster
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John Randolf Bray
Mary Ellen Bute
1917 J.R. Bray produced the first commercial animated film in color: The Debut of Thomas Cat, a hand-colored film.
While working for Hearst, MCay began to experiment with the idea of using animated pictures as part of his vaudeville act. His first attempt was made using the popular characters from the "Little Nemo" strip. It was a huge success and captivated audiences everywhere he went. He followed this experiment up with "How a Mosquito Operates", again a success.
1914 "Gertie The Dinosaur“
Rather then just showing the film as he had with his previous attempts, McCay actually interacted with Gertie, giving her life and charm. Gertie was an instant success and is the first original character developed solely for the animated cartoon and not based on a pre-existing comic strip.
to draw editorial
cartoons until his deathby stroke on July 26th.
Extensive use of this technique was made
in Fleischer's Out of the Inkwell series,
one of the highlights being a boxing match
between the cartoon Koko the Clown
and a live kitten.
He later took a job of producing and directing the Handy Corporation's rare cartoon shorts, one of which was Rudolph the Red Nosed Reindeer.
1932 first attempt with abstract film was in collaboration with Joseph Schillinger and Lewis Jacobs on the unfinished Synchronization.