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Towards Characterizing and Classifying Communication-based Automotive Applications from a Wireless Networking Perspective. Fan Bai, Hariharan Krishnan, Varsha Sadekar General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, Michigan Tamer Elbatt, Gavin Holland

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Towards Characterizing and ClassifyingCommunication-based Automotive Applicationsfrom a Wireless Networking Perspective

Fan Bai, Hariharan Krishnan, Varsha Sadekar

General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, Michigan

Tamer Elbatt, Gavin Holland

HRL Laboratories, Malibu, California

Modified and presented by Jihyuk Choi

outline
Outline
  • Introduction
  • V2V/V2I Communication-based Automotive Applications
  • V2V/V2I Application Characterization and Classification
  • Performance Metrics for V2V/V2I Applications
what is a vanet
What is a VANET ?
  • Vehicular Ad-hoc NETworks
  • Individual nodes different from traditional wireless nodes
    • No power constraint
    • Nodes mostly mobile
  • Extends existing infrastructure

Vehicle-Vehicle Communication

Vehicle-Infrastructure

Communication

a modern vehicle is a computer on wheels
A modern vehicle is a computer on wheels

(GPS)

- Human-Machine Interface

- Navigation system

  • Processing power: comparable with a Personal Computer + a few dozens of specialized processors
  • Communication: typically over a dedicated channel:Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC)
    • In the US, 75 MHz at 5.9 GHz;
    • In Europe, 20 MHz requested but not yet allocated)
  • Envisioned protocol: IEEE 802.11p
  • Penetration will be progressive (over 2 decades or so)
safety applications
Safety Applications
  • PCN: V2V Post Crash Notification
  • EEBL: Emergency Electronic Brake Light
  • RHCN: Road Hazard Condition Notification
  • RFN: Road Feature Notification
  • CCW: Cooperative Collision Warning
  • CVW: Cooperative Violation Warning
convenance applications
Convenance Applications
  • TP: Traffic Probe
  • TOLL: Free Flow Tolling
  • PAN: Parking Availability Notification
  • PSL: Parking Spot Locator
commercial applications
Commercial Applications
  • RVP/D: Remote Vehicle Personalization/Diagnostics
  • SA: Service Announcements
  • CMDD: Content, Map or Database Download
  • RTVR: Real-Time Video Relay
outline1
Outline
  • Introduction
  • V2V/V2I Communication-based Automotive Applications
  • V2V/V2I Application Characterization and Classification
  • Performance Metrics for V2V/V2I Applications
motivation of the paper
Motivation of the Paper
  • Objective: Categorization of communication-based automotive applications
    • From both application characteristic perspective and networking perspective
  • This effort helps bring the gap between the networking research society (focused on technology development) and the automotive research society (focused on application development)
  • Specifically, we are interested in
    • The representative communication-based automotive applications
    • The key application characteristics and networking attributes
    • The categorization of applications from a network design standpoint
    • The major performance metrics
v2v v2i communication based automotive applications 1
SafetyV2V/V2I Communication-based Automotive Applications (1)
  • From an application benefit viewpoint, V2V/V2I applications can be classified as
    • Safety Applications
    • Convenience Applications
    • Commercial Applications
v2v v2i communication based automotive applications 2
Convenience

Commercial

V2V/V2I Communication-based Automotive Applications (2)
  • among those listed, safety-oriented applications are of special interest because they are expected to significantly reduce the fatalities and economic losses caused by traffic accidents
outline2
Outline
  • General Motors V2V/V2I Technology Development
  • V2V/V2I Communication-based Automotive Applications
  • V2V/V2I Application Characterization and Classification
  • Performance Metrics for V2V/V2I Applications
classification criteria application characteristics
Classification Criteria: Application Characteristics
  • Application Characteristics
    • describe properties directly related to the applications themselves
classification criteria network attributes
Classification Criteria: Network Attributes
  • Networking Attributes
    • characterize the fundamental aspects of network design for communication-based automotive applications
application characteristic characterization
Application Characteristic Characterization

Applications exhibit commonalities!

application classification 1
Short Message Communications

Content

Download/Steaming

Unicast

Broadcast

Unicast

File

Video

Event

-

Periodic

On

-

demand

Financial

Non

driven

Download

Streaming

Financial

Application Classification (1)

Application Benefit Perspective

Networking Attributes Perspective

1. Safety

- SVA, EEBL, PCN, RHCN, RFN, CCW, CVW

2. Convenience

- CRN, TP, TOLL, PAN, PSL

3. Commercial

- RVP/D, SA, GMDD, RTVR

application classification 2
Application Classification (2)
  • Group applications into 7 generic classes:
    • Accommodate the applications of interest

SVA: Stopped or Slow VehicleAdvisor

EEBL: Emergency Electronic Brake Light

PCN: V2V Post Crash Notification

RHCN: Road Hazard Condition Notification

RFN: Road Feature Notification

TP: Traffic Probe

PAN: Parking Availability Notification

PSL: Parking Spot Locator

- Only (7 generic classes) application models

- Individual applications are simple extensions from the generic models

outline3
Outline
  • General Motors V2V/V2I Technology Development
  • V2V/V2I Communication-based Automotive Applications
  • V2V/V2I Application Characterization and Classification
  • Performance Metrics for V2V/V2I Applications
performance metrics for communication based automotive applications
Performance Metrics for Communication-based Automotive Applications
  • We mainly concentrate on safety applications, since they are the initial focus of automotive industry
    • Necessity to introduce novel application-level metrics to accurately capture performance trends of safety applications
performance metrics for safety applications 1
Performance Metrics for Safety Applications (1)
  • Reliability Metrics
    • (Network-level) Packet Success Probability ( Pnet(d))
      • Defined as the percentage of packets successfully received from broadcasting vehicle(s) at distance d away from the receiving vehicle
    • (Application-level) T-window Reliability Metric ( Papp(d) )
      • Defined as the probability of successfully receiving at least one packet broadcasted by the transmitter at distance d within a given “application tolerance window” T
  • Application- vs. Network-level Reliability
  • Where,T: Application Tolerance Window
  • t: Application Broadcast Interval

SVA Application

performance metrics for safety applications 2
Performance Metrics for Safety Applications (2)
  • Latency Metrics
    • (Network-level) Average Per-packet Latency (Δτ) (only for successfully received packets)
      • Defined as the time elapsed between generating a packet at the application of the sender and successfully receiving that packet at the application of the receiver
    • (Application-level) Time-to-Successful Reception (ΔT)
      • Defined as the duration between the time when a broadcast packet is generated at application layer of transmitting vehicle and the time at which the first successful packet is received by the application layer of receiving vehicle
  • Application- vs. Network-level Latency

SVA Application

  • Where, t: Application Broadcast Interval
  • Pnet: Network-level reliability
contributions of the paper
Contributions of the Paper
  • Investigate the application characteristics and network attributes, in order to better understand the behavior of communication-based automotive applications
  • Group a large number of applications, with similar properties, to the same “generic” class
    • Develop a few types of application models for the identified “generic” classes in our vehicular network simulator
    • Develop a network protocol stack for each class of applications, to maximize reusability of common protocols modules
  • Identify common QoS requirements and performance metrics for the identified application classes
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